Contents: 651.0700 Introduction 7-1

651.0701 Overview of geologic materials and ground water 7-2

(a) Geologic material 7-2

(b) Ground water 7-2

651.0702 Engineering geology considerations in planning 7-9

(a) Corrosivity 7-9

(b) Location of water table 7-9

(d) Stability for embankment and excavated cut slopes 7-11

(e) Excavatability 7-11

(f) Seismic stability 7-11

(g) Dispersion 7-12

(h) Permeability 7-12

(i) Puncturability 7-13

(j) Settlement potential 7-13

(k) Shrink/swell 7-13

(l) Topography 7-13

(m) Availability and suitability of borrow material 7-14

(n) Presence of abandoned wells and other relics of past use 7-14

651.0703 Factors affecting ground water quality considered in 7-15


(a) Attenuation potential of soil 7-15

(b) Ground water flow direction 7-16

(c) Permeability of aquifer material 7-16

(d) Hydraulic conductivity 7-16

(e) Hydraulic head 7-16

(f) Hydraulic gradient 7-17

(g) Hydrogeologic setting 7-17

(h) Land topography 7-17

(i) Proximity to designated use aquifers, recharge areas, and well 7-17

head protection areas

(j) Type of aquifer 7-17

(k) Vadose zone material 7-17

651.0704 Site investigations for planning and design 7-18

(a) Preliminary investigation 7-18

(b) Detailed investigation 7-18

651.0705 References 7-21

Appendixes Appendix 7A Determining ground water flow direction and 7A-1

hydraulic gradient

Appendix 7B Identifying soils for engineering purposes 7B-1

Tables Table 7-1 Porosity and specific yield for various geologic materials 7-9

Table 7-2 Engineering geology considerations for selected waste 7-10 management components

Table 7-3 Excavation characteristics of geologic materials 7-12

Figures Figure 7-1 Agricultural sources of potential ground water 7-1


Figure 7-2 Karst areas in the United States 7-3

Figure 7-3 Zones of underground water 7-4

Figure 7-4 Aquifers 7-5

Figure 7-5 Unconfined aquifer 7-6

Figure 7-6 Cross section through stream valley showing ground 7-6 water flow lines and flowing (artesian) well from unconfined aquifer

Figure 7-7 Confined (artesian) aquifer 7-7

Figure 7-8 Perched aquifer 7-7 Figure 7-9 Porosity—how ground water occurs in geologic materials 7-8

Figure 7-10 Karst topography 7-14

Figure 7-11 Permeability of various geologic materials 7-15

Chapter 7

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