Swine Waste Management

Swine waste and waste management systems have been widely studied, and much has been reported on swine manure properties. Table 4-11 lists characteristics of "as excreted" swine manure from feeding and breeding stock. More specific data on manure solids produced by growing swine ranging from 10 to 220 pounds are in figure 4-2. Breeding stock manure characteristics, also shown in table 4-11, are subject to less variation than those for growing animals. Wasted feed also significantly changes manure characteristics. A 10 percent feed waste increases manure total solids by 40 percent.

Ration components can make a significant difference in manure characteristics. Corn, the principal grain in swine rations, has a high digestibility (90%). Table 4-11 and figure 4-2 were developed for corn-based rations. If a grain of lower digestibility, such as barley (79%), is substituted for 50 percent of the corn in the ration, the total solids of the manure increase 41 percent and the volatile solids increase 43 percent above that of a ration based on corn. Wasted feed further increases the necessary size of storage units and lagoon facilities needed for manure from rations of lower digestibility.

A common procedure for collecting and storing swine waste under slatted floors is in deep or shallow tanks that may be allowed to overflow to lagoons or longer-term storage units. Daily accumulation of such waste cannot be accurately predicted. Table 4-12 presents concentration data on solids and nutrients in swine waste in tanks. Using these concentrations and the volume of waste on hand, plans for use of the waste can be made.

Swine waste storage structures and facilities must make allowances for wasted water. Small pigs, especially, play with automatic waterers and can waste up to 3 gallons of water per day per head. See section 651.0403(b)(2) for additional information. Table 4-13 gives data on the nature of rainfall runoff and settling basin sludge from surfaced swine feedlots exposed to precipitation.

Anaerobic lagoons have been used extensively for swine waste in the United States. Supernatant, the upper liquid layer, of properly operating swine lagoons is often brownish, chocolate, or purple. It's characteristics are listed in table 4-13. Light yellowish-green lagoon supernatant is generally less concentrated, and black generally is more concentrated than indicated in the table.

Sludge accumulates in a good anaerobic swine lagoon at a rate of 0.0485 cubic foot per pound of total solids placed in the lagoon. This is about 12 cubic feet per grower/finisher equivalent annually.

Table 4-11 Swine waste characterization — as excreted*

Component

Units

Grower 40 - 220 lb

Gestation

Lactation

Boar

Nursing/ nursery pig 0 - 40 lb

Weight

lb/d/1000#

63.40

32.80

27.20

60.00

20.S0

106.00

Volume

ft3/d/1000#

1.00

0.S3

0.44

0.96

0.33

1.70

Moisture

%

90.00

90.00

90.80

90. 00

90.70

90.00

TS

% w.b.

10.00

10.00

9.20

10. 00

9.30

10.00

lb/d/1000#

6.34

3.28

2.50

6.00

1.90

10.60

VS

!!

5.40

2.92

2.13

S.40

1.70

8.80

FS

!!

0.94

0.36

0.37

0.60

0.30

1.80

COD

!!

6.06

3.12

2.37

S.73

1.37

9.80

bod5

!!

2.08

1.08

0.83

2.00

0.6S

3.40

N

!!

0.42

0.24

0.19

0.47

0.1S

0.60

P

!!

0.16

0.08

0.06

0.1S

0.0S

0.25

K

!!

0.22

0.13

0.12

0.30

0.10

0.35

TDS

1.29

C:N ratio

7

7

6

6

6

8

* Average daily production for weight range noted. Increase solids and nutrients by 4% for each 1% feed waste more than 5%.

* Average daily production for weight range noted. Increase solids and nutrients by 4% for each 1% feed waste more than 5%.

Figure 4-2 permits planners, designers, and others to estimate the manure solids production of growing swine in the weight range of 10 to 220 pounds.

Example 4-3: Estimate the total volatile and fixed solids produced daily in the manure of a 140-pound grower swine.

Entering figure 4-2 on the horizontal scale at an animal weight of 140 pounds, project vertically to the TS and VS curves and then horizontally to the vertical scale to read the values of 0.77 lb/d and 0.69 lb/d for the TS and VS, respectively. Fixed solids production is the difference between TS and VS values, or FS = 0.08 lb/d (0.77-0.69).

Example 4-4: Estimate the daily total volatile and fixed solids production in the manure of 450 grower/ finisher swine with an average weight of 100 pounds. Enter figure 4-2 on the horizontal scale at weight of 100 pounds and project vertically to the TS and VS curves. Project horizontally to the vertical scale and read values of 0.63 lb/d and 0.57 lb/d for TS and VS, respectively. Multiplying by 450, the total number of animals, and determining fixed solids by the difference between TS and VS, the following amounts are determined:

TS = (125 x 14.2 ) = 1,775 lb/d VS = (125 x 12.1) = 1,513 lb/d FS = (1,775 -1,513) = 262 lb/d

Table 4-12 Swine waste characterization — storage tanks under slats

Figure 4-2 Manure solids production vs. pig weight for growing swine

Component Units

Farrow Nursery

Grow/ finish

Breeding/ gestation

Component Units

Farrow Nursery

Grow/ finish

Breeding/ gestation

Moisture

%

96.50

96.00

91.00

97.00

TS

% w.b.

3.50

4.00

9.00

3.00

VS lb/1000 gal

189.85

233.27

562.35

149.96

FS

it

101.64

99.97

187.45

99.97

N

h

29.16

40.00

52.48

25.00

NH4-N

h

23.32

33.32

p4

h

15.00

13.32

22.50

10.00

K

h

23.32

13.32

18.33

17.50

C:N ratio

4

3

6

3

Table 4-13 Swine waste characterization — anaerobic lagoon; feedlot runoff

Component

Units

- Anaerobic lagoon -

- - Feedlot runoff* - -

Super-

Sludge

Runoff

Settling

natant

water basin sludge

Moisture

%

99.75

92.40

98.50

88.8

TS

% w.b.

0.25

7.60

1.50

11.2

VS lb/1000 gal

10.00

379.89

90.7**

FS

h

10.83

253.27

21.3**

COD

h

10.00

538.18

BOD5

h

3.33

N

h

2.91

25.00

2.00**

5.6**

NH4-N

h

1.83

6.33

1.20**

4.5**

p4

h

0.63

22.50

0.38**

2.2**

K

h

3.16

63.31

1.10**

10.0**

C:N ratio

2

8

* Semi-humid climate (approx. 30" annual rainfall); annual sludge removal. ** lb/yr/1000#.

* Semi-humid climate (approx. 30" annual rainfall); annual sludge removal. ** lb/yr/1000#.

Figure 4-2 Manure solids production vs. pig weight for growing swine

/

/

/

f

vs

*

/

T

*

f--

/

I

f

/

t

t

/

i

/

j

t

/

f

/

/

!

Note: FS

=

TS

VS

h

li

y

f

Pig weight. lb.

100 150

Pig weight. lb.

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