Excavation characteristics of the geologic materials at the site determine the type and size of equipment needed and the class of excavation, either common or rock, for pay purposes (table 7-3). Commonly available equipment may not be suitable in some situations. Blasting or specialized high horsepower ripping equipment may be required. Cemented pans, dense glacial till, boulders, an irregular bedrock surface, or a high water table can all increase the difficulty and cost of excavation.
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