F Poultry

Because of the high degree of industry integration, standardized rations, and complete confinement, layer and broiler manure characteristics vary less than those of other species. Turkey production is approaching the same status. Table 4-14 presents waste characteristics for "as excreted" poultry manure.

Table 4-14 Poultry waste characterization — as excreted*

Component Units

Layer

Pullet

Broiler

Turkey

Duck

Weight

lb/d/1000#

60.50

45.60

80.00

43.60

Volume

ft3/d/1000#

0.93

0.73

1.26

0.69

Moisture %

75.00

75.00

75.00

75.00

TS

% w.b.

25.00

25.00

25.00

25.00

lb/d/1000#

15.10

11.40

20.00

10.90

12.0

VS

it

10.80

9.70

15.00

9.70

7.0

FS

h

4.30

1.70

5.00

1.25

5.0

COD

h

13.70

12.20

19.00

12.30

9.5

BOD5

h

3.70

3.30

5.10

3.30

2.5

N

h

0.83

0.62

1.10

0.74

0.7

P

h

0.31

0.24

0.34

0.28

0.3

K

h

0.34

0.26

0.46

0.28

0.5

TDS

2.89

C:N ratio

7

9

8

7

6

* Increase solids and nutrients by 4% for each 1% feed waste more than 5%.

* Increase solids and nutrients by 4% for each 1% feed waste more than 5%.

Table 4-15 lists data for poultry flocks that use a litter (floor) system. Bedding materials, whether wood, crop, or other residue, are largely organic matter that has little nutrient component. Litter moisture in a well managed house generally is in the range of 25 to 35 percent. Higher moisture levels in the litter result in greater weight and reduced levels of nitrogen.

Most broiler houses are now cleaned out one or two times a year. Growers generally have five or six flocks of broilers each year, and it is fairly common to take the "cake" out after each flock. The cake is generally 1 to 2 inches of material. About 2 or 3 inches of new litter is placed on the floor before the next flock. Much of the waste characterization data for broiler litter are based on five or six cycles per year.

When a grower manages for a more frequent, complete cleanout, the data in table 4-15 need adjustment. The birds still produce the same amount of N, P, and K per day. However, the density and moisture content of the litter is different with a more frequent cleanout and the nutrients are less concentrated. The amount of nutrients is less compared to the litter volume because less time is allowed for the nutrients to accumulate. A further complication is that nitrogen is lost to the atmosphere during storage while fresh manure is being continually deposited.

Table 4-15 Poultry waste characterization — litter

Component Units Layer Broiler Turkey Broiler Duck*

high-rise* breeder**

Weight

Moisture

VS FS N

NH4-N

24.00

35.00

24.30

50.00

24.00

34.00

34.00

11.20

50.00

76.00

66.00

66.00

88.80

12.00

26.50

16.10

21.40

58.60

5.10

30.20

0.425

0.68

0.88

1.06

2.31

0.01

0.275

0.34

0.40

1.32

0.30

0.40

0.45

1.19

9

14

* No bedding or litter material added to waste.

Figure 4-3 shows the field determined relationship between the number of brood cycles between clean-outs and the nitrogen concentration in the litter after five cycles. The adjustment factor for five cycles is 1.0, thus no change. For example, a broiler producer generally has about 60 pounds of nitrogen per ton of broiler litter when a complete cleanout is done annually. The producer decides to do a complete cleanout after only one cycle. The nitrogen concentration would be about half that expected with an annual cleanout. Thus, only about 30 pounds of nitrogen would be in a ton of litter, so the producer would need to make twice as many trips to apply the same amount of nitrogen to the field. Figure 4-3 was developed using information from A.H. Stephenson, T.A. McCaskey, and B.G. Ruffin (Stephenson et al. 1989).

High-rise layer houses use no bedding and store manure for up to a year. Bird densities in high-rise houses have increased greatly in recent years, and the manure characteristics have been subject to great change. Use of current data for high-rise manure characterization is important.

As in other livestock operations, feed waste greatly increases the volume and organic content of the waste. A 10 percent wastage of feed, when added to the manure, increases total solids by 42 percent.

Poultry lagoon supernatant and sludge characteristics are in table 4-16. Anaerobic lagoon supernatant from good layer and pullet lagoons is brown, rosy, or bur gundy. Yellowish-green supernatant is less concentrated. Blackish supernatant is more concentrated and generally has a higher value than those shown.

Layer lagoon sludge is much more dense than pullet lagoon sludge because of its high grit or limestone content. Layer lagoon sludge accumulates at the rate of about 0.0294 cubic foot per pound of waste total solids added to the lagoon, and pullet lagoon sludge accumulates at the rate of 0.0454 cubic foot per pound total solids. This is equivalent to about 0.6 cubic foot per layer and 0.3 cubic foot per pullet annually.

Figure 4-3 Curve to adjust broiler waste nitrogen concen-tration based on frequency of cleanout of litter

Brood cycles VS nitrogen concentration

Figure 4-3 Curve to adjust broiler waste nitrogen concen-tration based on frequency of cleanout of litter

Brood cycles VS nitrogen concentration

Number of brood cycles between cleaning

Table 4-16 Poultry waste characterization — anaerobic lagoon

Component Units -------Layer---------------------Pullet-------

Super- Sludge Super- Sludge natant natant

Moisture % 99.S0

VS lb/1000 gal 18.33

C:N ratio 2

86.90

99.70

92.60

13.10

0.30

7.40

404.06

10.83

314.09

687.32

14.17

302.42

32.S0

3.00

24.17

7.66

2.24

4.91

4S.82

0.7S

27.49

6.00

7.00

6.17

7

2

7

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