Utilization includes recycling reusable waste products and reintroducing nonreusable waste products into the environment. Agricultural wastes may be used as a source of energy, bedding, animal feed, mulch, organic matter, or plant nutrients. Properly treated, they can be marketable.

A common practice is to recycle the nutrients in the waste through land application. A complete analysis of utilization through land application includes selecting the fields; scheduling applications; designing the distribution system; selecting necessary equipment; and determining application rates and volumes, value of the recycled products, and installation and management costs associated with the utilization process.

Refer to chapter 10 for detailed discussion of the collection, storage, treatment, and transfer functions, and refer to chapter 11 for information on utilization through land application.

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