Contents: 651.0600 Introduction 6-1

651.0601 Agricultural waste as a resource for plant growth 6-1

651.0602 The plant-soil system 6-2

(a) Nutrient transformation 6-2

(b) Soil supports plant growth 6-3

651.0603 Plant nutrient uptake 6-4

(a) Essential plant nutrients 6-4

(b) Nonessential elements 6-4

(d) Phosphorus 6-4

(e) Potassium, calcium, and magnesium 6-5

(g) Trace elements 6-6

(h) Synthetic organic compounds 6-7

651.0604 Balancing plant nutrient needs with waste application 6-8

(a) Deficiencies of plant nutrients 6-8

(b) Excesses of plant nutrients, total dissolved solids, and trace elements 6-8

651.0605 Application of agricultural waste 6-11

(a) Field and forage crops 6-11

(b) Horticultural crops 6-14

(c) Vegetated filter strips for agricultural waste treatment 6-15

(d) Forest land for agricultural waste treatment 6-16

651.0606 Nutrient removal by harvesting of crops 6-17

(a) Nutrient uptake calculation 6-18

(b) Nutrient uptake example 6-18

651.0607 References 6-23

Tables Table 6-1 Relative accumulation of cadmium into edible plant parts 6-6

by different crops

Table 6-2 Recommended cumulative soil test limits for metals 6-7

of major concern applied to agricultural cropland

Table 6-3 General effects of trace element toxicity on common crops 6-12

Table 6-4 Interaction among elements within plants and adjacent 6-13 to plant roots

Table 6-5 Summary of joint EPA/FDA/USDA guidelines for sludge 6-14 application for fruit and vegetable production

Table 6-6 Plant nutrient uptake by specified crop and removed 6-19 in the harvested part of the crop

Figures Figure 6-1 The effects of different farming systems after three decades 6-3

on the carbon content of soils from broken out sod ground

Figure 6-2 Effect of soil salinity on growth of field crops 6-9

Figure 6-3 Effect of soil salinity on growth of forage crops 6-10

Figure 6-4 Effect of soil salinity on growth of vegetable crops 6-10

Figure 6-5 Growth and nutrient uptake by corn 6-17

Chapter 6

Organic Gardeners Composting

Organic Gardeners Composting

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