Waste Stream Ebook
The Federal Policy for Use of Municipal Sewage Sludge for the Production of Fruits and Vegetables was published in January 1981. It was jointly developed by the USDA, EPA, and Food and Drug Administration (FDA). SCS technical assistance must be provided in conformance with the guidelines established in this document. The policy was an outgrowth of the EPA regulations, Criteria for Classification of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities Federal Register, Vol. 44, No. 179 (40 CFR, Part 257), 9 13 79 . The regulation addresses land application of municipal wastewater sludges for food chain crop production. It states that through use of high quality sludges coupled with proper management procedures, the consumer should be protected from contaminated crops, and potential adverse environmental effects will be minimized.
Many bacteria in solid and liquid wastes from farm animals have been screened for resistance to antibiotics commonly used as growth promoters and or therapeutically to treat diseases (Sarmah et al. 2006). In one study, 80 terramycin resistance was exhibited by solid waste isolates, with 30 terramycin and 100 sulfamethazine resistance shown by liquid waste isolates (Bromel et al. 1971). However, the risk from animal to human being is minimal, with the exception of those personnel of agriculture or slaughterhouses who are in close contact with the animals and may develop resistant strains of bacteria of animal origin. It must be noted, however, that clear evidence of development of antibiotic resistance transfer from animal to humans has not yet been reported.
Drainage of wetlands, amendment of saline soils, restoration of soil contaminated with urban waste materials, and the rehabilitation of floodplains and tidal forelands are all reclamation processes. In some cases they may not lead to complete restoration of the soil and landscape, although a self-sustaining ecosystem always must be created.
Food processing can result in considerable quantities of solid waste and wastewater. Processing of some fruits and vegetables results in more than 50 percent waste. Many of these wastes, however, can be used in by-product recovery procedures, and not all of the waste must be sent to use or disposal facilities. Food processing wastewater may be a dilute material that has a low concentration of some of the components of the raw product. On the other hand, solid waste from food processing may contain a high percentage of the raw product and exhibit characteristics of that raw product. solid waste solid waste
The decomposition rate of organic material is primarily controlled by the chemical and biological composition of the waste material, soil moisture and temperature (figs. 5-1 & 5-2), and available oxygen supply. Rapid decomposition of organic wastes and mineralization of organic nitrogen and phosphorus by soil micro-organisms are dependent on an adequate supply of oxygen and soil moisture.
Agricultural waste materials, especially livestock manure that has C N ratios shown in chapter 4, increase the energy or food supplies available to the soil microbial population. This high energy stimulates soil microbial activity, which consumes more available nitrogen than the mineralization processes release. Thus, high microbial activity during initial waste mineralization can cause a reduction of available nitrogen below that needed for plant growth. Nitrogen deficiency also occurs if the waste mineralization cannot supply sufficient quantities of nitrogen to the plants during periods of rapid growth. This is most apparent in spring as the soil warms and crops exhibit a short period of nitrogen deficiency.
A water assessment has to take into account all sources of water, including both groundwater and surface water and non-conventional sources such as desalinized and treated waste water, and all water uses, current and projected. Where there are competing uses, it is necessary to estimate the economic value of water in each category of use and the possibilities of water conservation in existing uses. An assessment also evaluates the waste-assimilation capacities of the water systems in light of the likely loads of waste materials that will be discharged into fresh water, and the economic costs and public health risks associated with poor water quality. As well as direct dumping of wastes into water, considerable amounts of pollution occur via seepage of wastes from cesspools and landfills and runoff of agricultural chemicals. Groundwater is particularly vulnerable to such pollution because natural In situations of water scarcity, the possibilities of recycling treated waste water and...
This IUC moved to spacious new premises in 1990 and US 4 million worth of equipment is now in place, ranging from pilot-plant fermentation, waste-water treatment and enzyme preparation facilities to laboratories for microbiology, enzymology, molecular genetics, biochemistry and analytical chemistry. Most of the IUC scientific staff have received or are receiving overseas training leading to higher degrees. Members of the IUC staff hold other permanent faculty appointments. There are cooperative research projects with Kyoto University, Japan Berlin University, through GTZ the universities of Strathclyde (on industrial waste-water treatment) and Kent (International Institute for Biotechnology) in the UK, supported by DFID.
Plant uptake is not the only form of nutrient transformation that takes place in the soil-plant system. The chemical compounds derived from waste material can be transformed by the following processes Denitrification in land treatment systems is best accomplished if the nitrogen is in the nitrate form and the waste contains sufficient organic carbon to supply energy to the denitrifying micro-organism. Where the nitrogen in the waste material is in the organic or ammonium form, an aerobic condition must be present to convert the nitrogen to the nitrate form. During the aerobic process, the organic carbon will be oxidized by aerobic bacteria in the soil, leaving less carbon available for anaerobic microbial use when the system goes anaerobic.
The deficiency of nutrients to the plants from agricultural waste application can occur by either the shortage of supplied elements contained in the material or the interference in the uptake of essential nutrients caused by the excessive supply of another. In the first case, an analysis of the waste material is needed to determine the amount of plant nutrients being supplied, and this amount is balanced with the quantity required by the crop. Using the Nutrient Management Standard (590) with a nutrient budget worksheet will assure that all essential nutrients are being supplied to the crop. For the second case, an example in the section, Excesses of plant nutrients, total dissolved solids, and trace elements, shows the antagonism that excessive uptake of ammonium ion from manure has on the calcium ion. High levels of copper, iron, and manganese in the waste material can cause a plant deficiency of zinc caused by blockage of Zn uptake sites on the root by the other ions.
The livestock population has provided a White Revolution, with 80 percent of the milk in India coming from small and marginal farms. This has had a major social impact. A diverse infrastructure has been established to help farmers in the application of embryo transfer technology. The worlds first in vitro fertilized buffalo calf (pratham) was born through embryo transfer technology at the National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer, in vitro embryo production, embryo sexing, vaccines, and diagnostic kits for animal health have also been developed. Cost effective, environmentally safe waste recycling technologies are being generated. The animal science area is also generating many avenues for employment.
Waste containing 20 or more solids or with a moisture content of 50 MWB or less is considered to be solid waste. Proper handling of solid waste inside buildings requires solid floors that can be bedded or drained. The waste is collected and usually is not treated except by the natural processes, as it is stored. The preferred method for waste disposal is mimicking the natural system spread it on the land. If not done correctly, disposal of solid animal waste on the land can reduce plant production, produce offensive odors, and contribute to the contamination of ground and surface water. TheNRCS1 has developed standards for the application of solid animal waste on land. These standards are based on soil type, slope, and distance from surface and ground water. The general standards are For accurate results, the first step in determining the amount of solid animal waste that can be applied to the soil is to analyze both the solid waste and the soil for the amounts of nitrogen and...
The economic threshold for commercial selection of a biological process to replace a physico-chemical process for heavy metal removal from a waste stream as assessed by Macaskie (1991) is that a metal-loading capacity greater than 15 of the biomass dry wt must be demonstrated. Before the selection of any technology, it is imperative to note the hierarchy of hazardous waste management options reduce reuse recycle. The option of last resort is to treat and dispose of the waste in safe landfills, while minimizing the resultant volume, since disposal sites are few and space is precious not to mention expensive. A given bioremediation technology should be able to perform on a large scale in order for it to be commercially viable. The organism or biomaterial selected to accomplish the goal of removing or altering a heavy metal or metal ion rendering it less toxic must be very efficient in performing its intended function. The literature is rich with reports of studies attesting to the...
Most degradation studies employing Phanerochaete have been carried out in solid cultures or in shallow liquid stationary or shake cultures (Ander and Eriksson 1977 Hatakka 1985). Packed-bed bioreactor configurations have been mainly used to study the ligninolytic enzymes and degradative abilities of P. chrysosporium (Lewandowski et al. 1990 Linko 1988). In view of this it was decided to examine the effect of the fungus on the industrial waste in a 2 l packed-bed reactor.
Gasification of biomass has received much attention as a means of converting waste materials to a variety of energy forms such as electricity, combustible gases, synfuels, various fuel alcohols, etc. Gasification is a two-step, endothermic process in which solid fuel is thermo-chemically converted into a low or medium Btu gas. In the first step, pyrolysis of the biomass takes place in the second step either direct or indirect oxygen-deprived combustion takes place during the gasification process. This process converts raw biomass into a combustible gas, retaining 60-70 of the feedstock's original energy content. A recent cost and performance analysis of biomass (i.e. wood) gasification systems for combined power generation indicated that such a steam system (Battelle Columbus Laboratory) had the lowest capital cost and product electricity cost (Craig and Mann 1997).
Solid waste storage ponds and structures must be designed correctly to ensure desired performance and safety. Considerations include materials selection, control of runoff and seepage, necessary storage capacity, and proper design of structural components, such as sidewalls, floors, and roofs.
The mineralization of agricultural waste material is governed by the biological, chemical, and physical properties of soil and organic waste the soil moisture and the soil temperature. Organic waste mineralization is a process where microbes digest organic waste, reduce the waste material to inorganic constituents, and convert it to more stable organic materials. Inorganic materials released during this process are the essential plant nutrient (N, P, K), macronutrients and micronutrients, salts, and heavy metals.
Purchase and use only the amount of material actually needed. This requires accurate determination of the amount of pesticide solution needed and careful calibration and operation of application equipment. Once a chemical solution is prepared, all of the material needs to be used for the purpose intended. This reduces the amount of waste material to be processed.
The cost for treating the wastewater depends on specific characteristics of it. Two significant characteristics that dictate the cost for treatment are the daily volume of discharge and the relative strength of the wastewater. Other characteristics become important as system operations are affected and specific discharge limits are identified (i.e., suspended solids). The environmental consequences in inadequately removing the pollutants from the waste stream can have serious ecological ramifications. For example, if inadequately treated wastewater were to be discharged to a stream or river, a eutrophic condition would develop within the aquatic environment due to the discharge of biodegradable, oxygen-consuming materials. If this condition were sustained for an extended period of time, the ecological balance of the receiving stream, river, or lake (i.e., aquatic microflora, plants, and animals) would be upset. Continual depletion of the oxygen in these waters would also give rise to...
Biotechnology can play an important role in waste utilization. Solid waste (after starch extraction) still contains 50 percent starch (dry weight) and has been used as animal feed. Tapioca, however, is not suitable for the production of feed requiring high protein content. Attempts have been made for protein enrichment using various microorganisms such as As-pergillus and Rhizopus. Nevertheless, the economic feasibility is still in doubt and further technological development is needed. In contrast, turning wastewater into energy through high-rate anaerobic digestion is promising. Though the technology is proven, an adaptation to such high-strength wastewater and low buffering capacity is required to ensure stability of the system. In comparison with the upflow anerobic sludge bed reactor, the fixed bed is easier to control and operate. R&D, however, is focused on increasing loading efficiency. Based on calculations, methane generated from anaerobic treatment of starch wastewater from...
Handling of liquid or slurry waste from buildings involves scraping or flushing the waste from where it is dropped by the animal to a pit or a storage tank. Once collected, the waste is treated and or disposed. Open feedlot waste is handled as runoff-carried waste, with natural precipitation carrying the liquid or the slurry, flowing from the pens into a drainage and collection system for subsequent removal or treatment and disposal. Liquid waste usually is handled by pumping, and is disposed of by being spread on the surface of or injected into the soil. The maximum amount of waste that can be spread in liquid form is determined by using the same procedure as that used for solid waste.
AndRollefson 1995 OzdoganandOzdogan 1989 Schirmer 1990 VoigtChapter 11,this volume). In light of the number of people living in some of these Neolithic communities, it is also possible that some form of civic, community-oriented leadership would have been necessary for organizing the planting and harvesting of crops. Based on spatial patterning of lithic waste materials from 'Ain Ghazal, Quintero and Wilke (1995) note that there is evidence for stone tool workshops in the Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic and that the high degree of standardization may well reflect some from of craft specialization.
It to digestion of real wastes in full scale processes, particularly wastes discharged at elevated temperatures. In general, wastes that have been subjected to this form of treatment include sugar beet waste, coffee, brewery, distillery and other beverage wastes as well as slaughter house and fish process effluents, vegetable potato wastes and paper pulping wastes as well as organic fraction of municipal wastes and household wastes (Forster-Carneiro et al., 2008abc Koppar and Pullammanappallil 2008 Lee et al., 2008 Ortega et al., 2008 Yilmaz et al., 2008 Zupancic et al., 2007 Linke 2006 Angelidaki et al., 2006 Hartmann and Ahring 2005 Bouallagui et al., 2004).
(a) Tempe (Tempeh) Kedele This is a fermented soybean-based food, popular with American vegetarians and also available in Canada, the West Indies, Holland, Indonesia, and Malaysia. It is supplied in the form of a white, moldy cake. The beans are cleaned, soaked, dehulled, partially cooked, drained, inoculated, packed in banana leaves or perforated plastic bags, and incubated for 2 days to produce tempe. A variety of fungi have been isolated from Malaysian tempe including various species of Aspergillus, Mucor, Penicillium, and Rhizopus by Yeoh and Merican (1977). In tempe of other origins bacteria such as Bacillus and Micrococcus sp. may also be present (b) Tempelike foods from broad beans and cowpeas Rhizopus arrhizus is used in the production of tempe products from broad beans. R. oligosporus, R. oryzae, and R. arrhizus are used for tempe products from cowpeas. Different Rhizopus species give products with different aromas and flavors (Djurtoft and Jensen 1977) (c) Oncom (Ontjon) A...
Bioethanol from lignocellulosic waste material using crop residues (Kim and Dale, 2004) and animal manure (Chen et al. 2003, 2004 Wen et al. 2004). For instance, a research group at Washington State University developed a process for hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials from cattle manure into fermentable sugars (Chen et al. 2003, 2004). According to the authors, when raw dairy manure was pretreated with 3 H2SO4 (at 110 oC) for an hour, hemicellulose was degraded to form arabinose, galactose and xylose, which were then treated with celluloytic enzymes to hydrolysze the cellulose. While these recent preliminary studies using agricultural wastes as lignocellulosic feedstock for ethanol production seem promising, more work is required to develop the technology on a larger scale. Nevertheless, this laboratory-based research will help develop an innovative waste management approach that uses agriculturally derived wastes as a renewable resource both for the extraction of value-added...
Pumps can be used to transfer liquid waste as needed. Solid and semi-solid waste can be transferred by mechanical conveyance equipment, in solid manure spreaders, and by pushing them down curbed concrete alleys. Semi-solid waste has been transferred in large pipes through the use of gravity, piston pumps, or air pressure.
The ability to accumulate nitrates differs from plant to plant or even within cultivars of a species. Concentrations of nitrate nitrogen in plant dry matter less than 0.1 percent is considered safe to feed livestock. Large applications of waste material on tall fescue, orchard-grass, and sudangrass can cause nitrate buildup. Cattle grazing these plants can, thus, be poisoned. When the concentration of nitrate nitrogen in the dry harvested material exceeds 0.4 percent, the forage is toxic.
While the green revolution gave us self-reliance in food, the livestock population provided a 'white revolution', making India the largest milk-producing country in the world. With 80 of the milk in India coming from small and marginal farms, progress in milk production has had a major social impact. A diverse infrastructure has been established to help farmers in the application of embryo-transfer technology. The world's first in vitro fertilization (IVF) buffalo calf was born through embryo-transfer technology at the National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer, in vitro embryo production, embryo sexing, vaccines and diagnostic kits for animal health have also been developed. Waste recycling technologies that are cost-effective and environmentally safe are being generated. The animal science area is also opening up many avenues for employment generation.
We give the description of a typical SSF process that aims to recycle solid waste into ethanol, which functions as an alternative fuel. The solid utilized in this process is approximately two-thirds urban waste and one-third pulp mill waste. This solid mixture contains approximately 57 in cellulose. The waste is pretreated, sterilized, and then forwarded to three reactors of 2500 gal each. A culture of mutant fungus T. reesei is inoculated into each reactor. The fungus continuously produces a full complement of cellulases that degrade cellulose. The total residence time for each cellulase production strain is 48 h. Ninety percent of the cellulose introduced into the reactors is degraded into sugars, such as pentose, xylose, arabinose, and glucose. Subsequently, the degraded cellulose is cooled in a heat exchanger and sent into 12 reactors for fermentation into ethanol. In this system, one can shut down four reactors while continuing operating the remaining reactors in full swing. The...
The primary objective of applying agricultural waste to land is to recycle part of the plant nutrients contained in the waste material into harvestable plant forage, fruit, or dry matter. An important consideration is the relationship between the plant's nutrient requirement and the quantity of nutrients applied in the agricultural wastes. A plant does not use all the nutrients available to it in the root zone. The fraction of the total that is assimilated by the roots varies depending on the species of plant, growth stage, depth and distribution of its roots, moisture conditions, soil temperature, and many other factors. The uptake efficiency of plants generally is not high, often less than 50 percent. Perennial grasses tend to be more efficient in nutrient uptake than row crops. They grow during most of the year, and actively grow during the period of waste application, which maximizes the nutrient removal from the applied waste product.
Soils that have high CEC and organic soils can exchange and retain large amounts of cations released by agricultural waste mineralization processes. Conversely, soils in which the CEC is low have low potential for exchanging and retaining these agricultural waste materials. The potential for agricultural waste contamination of underlying ground water and aquifers is highest for soils that have low CEC and lowest for those with high CEC.
Treatment of the waste in a lagoon is difficult for some livestock systems because of the volume of solids in the waste, but many of the solids can be removed before treatment. Liquid waste may be treated in an aerobic lagoon, an anaerobic lagoon, or other suitable liquid waste treatment facilities. Solid waste can be composted. Piston pumps or air pressure can be used to transfer semi-solid waste through large pipes.
Additionally, the amount of sludge produced in wastewater treatment is large, though 97 of it is primarily water trapped in the solids addition of chemicals in physicochemical treatment processes of wastewater treatment increases the amount of sludge produced in the treatment plant. Given the difficulty associated with direct disposal of this enormous watery lump of waste materials to either landfill or waterways, it is not surprising that the main task of sludge treatment is to reduce the quantity of sludge through removal of water. Sludge also needs to be stabilized by converting organic solids into harmless inert forms so that the treated sludge can be handled or used as soil conditioners without causing a nuisance or health hazards. Several basic operations of sludge treatment are commonly used in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment thickening, stabilization, conditioning, dewatering, reduction, and disposal.
*Energy generation is included under the utilization function because utilization of the waste material is the basic purpose of such operations. This is distinct from the treatment function in which the basic purpose is to change characteristics of the waste material. A substantial part of the original volume and strength of the waste material still remains after it has been used for energy generation. Consequently, waste material discharged after energy generation must be managed similarly to that which has not been used for energy generation. In the case of livestock manure, the management process could include transfer to storage and, from there, transfer to a second waste utilization function of application on the land.
Many environmental laws enacted by Congress are enforced by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA issues regulations for prevention of air and water pollution, protection of drinking water, proper solid waste management, and control of pesticide use. Their broad regulatory powers related to air and water pollution and solid waste management are of great interest to the agricultural producer and to agencies, such as the Soil Conservation Service (SCS), that provide technical assistance to producers. State public health and environmental control agencies generally are responsible for implementing Federal as well as State control programs.
The alimentary tract is, essentially, a long, often much modified, tube stretching from the mouth to the anus. There are three main sections foregut, mid-gut and hindgut, located mainly within the abdomen. The foregut includes a crop within which recently ingested food accumulates. Digestion and absorption of nutriment occurs within the mid-gut, whereas the hindgut is concerned with the absorption of water and the storage of waste material prior to defaecation. The insect gut includes a large number of long, whitish, blind-ending tubules (Malpighian tubules), which arise from between the mid- and the hindgut these tubules collect waste material from the body fluids and pass them into the gut. The haemocoel also contains an often large organ, known as the fat body, which forms whitish, yellowish or brownish groups or layers of cells. The fat body is concentrated mainly in the abdomen and serves various functions, including the synthesis and storage of fat, glycogen ( carbohydrate) and...
Composts can be made from most biodegradable materials, and could derive from many unusual sources. If it originates from municipal solid waste, however, care should be taken that no toxic and non-degradable materials remain after the supplier's separation processes. Small pieces of brick and concrete, glass and plastic (inerts), lead residues from old car batteries and cadmium from electroplated items are possible. A useful work on specifications and recommended chemical analyses of composts is the book by Bertoldi et al., 1987.
Waste production from livestock is expressed in pounds per day per 1,000 pounds of livestock live weight (lb d 1000 ). Volume of waste materials is expressed in cubic feet per day per 1,000 pounds of live weight (ft3 d 1000 ). Food processing waste is recorded in cubic feet per day (ft3 d), or the source is included as in cubic feet per 1,000 pounds of apples processed. In this chapter English units are used exclusively for weight, volume, and concentration data for manure, waste, and residue. Various solid fractions of a manure, waste, or residue, when expressed in units of pounds per day or as a concentration, generally are measured on a wet weight basis ( w.b.), a percentage of the as is or wet weight of the material. In some cases, however, data are recorded on a dry weight basis ( d.w.), a percentage of the dry weight of the material. The difference in these two values for a specific material is most likely very large. Nutrient and other chemical fractions of a waste material,...
Rural residential waste components are identified in tables 4-21 and 4-22. Table 4-21 lists the characteristics of human excrement. Household wastewater (table 4-22) can be categorized as graywater (no sanitary wastes included) and blackwater (sanitary wastewater). In most cases a composite of both of these components will be treated in a septic tank. The liquid effluent from the septic tank generally is treated in a soil absorption field. Residential wastewater of municipal origin is usually categorized into raw (untreated) and treated types (table 4-23). Secondary (biological) treatment is common for wastewater that is to be applied to agricultural land. Municipal wastewater sludge may also be in the raw, untreated form or in the treated (digested) form. Municipal compost is usually based on dewatered, digested sludge and refuse, but can contain other waste materials as well (table 4-23). Liquid and solid wastes of residential origin generally are not a source of toxic materials....
Soil-agricultural waste material microbial composition and microbial activity greatly influence the rate of organic waste mineralization. Soil moisture, temperature, and aeration regulate soil microbial activity and thus are factors that influence the rate of waste mineralization.
Odor-causing substances from waste material are frequently attracted to dust particles in the air. Collecting or limiting the transport of dust aids in reducing odor. Vegetation is very effective in trapping dust particles as is demonstrated by observing dust-covered trees and shrubs on the edges of unpaved roads and quarry sites. Surface features on leaves or needles, such as spines, hairs, and waxy or moist films, help trap particulates. In figure 8-9 the black pines planted downwind trap odor-laden dust particles and provide a visual barrier between the swine operation and nearby residence.
Composting converts an organic waste material into a stable organic product by converting nitrogen from the unstable ammonia form to a more stable organic form. The end result is a product that is safer to use than raw organic material and one that improves soil fertility, tilth, and water holding capacity. In addition, composting reduces the bulk of organic material to be spread improves its handling properties reduces odor, fly, and other vector problems and can destroy weed seeds and pathogens.
The consistency of the waste should be selected and controlled for several reasons. Solid waste management systems have a reduced total volume of waste because of the reduction in the amount of water. Solid waste handling equipment may have lower cost and power requirements however, the labor required for operation and management generally is greater than that for other methods. Liquid waste management systems are often easier to automate and require less daily attention than those for solid wastes. However, the additional water needed increases the volume of waste requiring management, and the initial cost of the liquid handling equipment may be greater than that for solid waste systems.
Where it is necessary to use public roads as haul routes, applicable State and local laws that govern their use must be followed. Use of public roads as haul routes requires that safety precautions be taken and hauling equipment that minimizes spillage and tracking of waste material, mud, and dirt be used. Aerial photographs and soil maps can be used to inventory haul routes.
Archaeological records indicate that landfills have been around since the stone-ages (White-Hunt, 1980 1981a,b). It is unlikely though, that the stone-age communities dug pits specifically for the disposal of wastes. Such landfills may have developed because a natural pit was available, hence traditional processes of landfilling simply involved dumping of refuse. It is not known whether such landfills were used specifically for the disposal of agricultural wastes or other types of wastes. Currently, a variety of agro-industrial wastes and sludge are disposed of to landfills, in addition to its established use for disposal of municipal solid waste and wastewater sludge, a variety of hazardous and other industrial and domestic wastes (Nguyen et al., 2007 Monte et al., 2008). In 1993, landfills were used to dispose 62 of all municipal solid wastes generated in the United States (Barlaz, 1997). Landfilling has the advantage of reclaiming devastated and ruined lands, and also has viable...
Management for utilization of organic waste material must take into account the chemical reactions that occur between the soil and the waste components. These reactions are broadly grouped as ion exchange, adsorption, precipitation, and complexation. The mechanisms and rates of these reactions are dependent upon physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil and organic waste material.
Waste materials are worked through the slats by the animal traffic into a storage tank or alley below. Most slats are constructed of reinforced concrete (fig. 1011) however, some are made of wood, plastic, or aluminum. They are manufactured either as individual units or as gangs of several slats. Common slat openings range from 3 8 inch to 1 3 4 inches, depending on animal type. For swine, openings between 3 8 and 3 4 inch are not recommended.
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