Contents

Preface Chapter 1

Introduction

Characteristics of Agricultural and Food Wastewater 3 Material Balances and Stoichiometry 21 Fluid Flow Rate and Mass Loading 24 Kinetics and Reaction Rates 24

Theoretical Modeling and Design of Biological Reactors 28 Process Economics 31

Chapter 2 Basic Microbiology in Wastewater Treatment Introduction 35 Structures of Cells 36 Important Microorganisms in Wastewater 37 Microbial Metabolism 44 Nitrification 46 Denitrification 48

Chapter 3 Physicochemical Wastewater Treatment Processes Introduction 51 Equalization Basins 52 Screening 54 Flotation 57 Sedimentation 58 Coagulation and Flocculation 65 Filtration Processes 70 Adsorption 73 Chemical Oxidation 79 Membrane Separations 80 Ion Exchange 102 Chapter Remarks 110

Contents

Chapter 4 Biological Wastewater Treatment Processes Introduction 113

Kinetics of Biochemical Systems in Wastewater

Microbiology 115 Idealized Biochemical Reactors 121 Completely Mixed Aerated Lagoon (CMAL) 125 Trickling Filter (TF) 127 Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) 131 Combined Aerobic Processes 137 Contact Anaerobic Systems 138

Chapter 5 Advanced Wastewater Treatment Processes

Biological Removal of Nitrogen: Nitrification and

Denitrification 147 Physicochemical Removal of Nitrogen 149 Biological Removal of Phosphorus 150 Physicochemical Removal of Phosphate 153 Membrane Processes for Advanced Wastewater

Treatment 156 VOC Removal with Pervaporation 160 Disinfections 160

Chapter 6 Natural Systems for Wastewater Treatment Introduction 167 Stabilization Ponds 169 Land Treatment Systems 181 Wetland Systems 198 Floating Aquatic Plant Systems 204

Chapter 7 Sludge Treatment and Management Sludge Quality and Characteristics 216 Sludge Thickening (Concentration) 217 Sludge Stabilization 221 Reed Beds 225 Conditioning of Sludge 229 Dewatering 231

Land Applications and Surface Disposal Incineration 242

Chapter 8 Innovative Technologies for Value-Added

Substance/Energy Recovery from Wastewaters 247 Introduction 247

Recoverable Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins for

Human and Animal Consumption 249 Recoverable Aroma Flavoring Compounds from

Food Processing Wastewaters 252 Recoverable Food/Agricultural By-Products for

Nonfood Uses 252 Energy or Fuel Generation from Wastewaters 254 Potential Applications of Industrial Commodities Derived from Sludge Treatment 255

Chapter 9 Economics of Food and Agricultural Wastewater

Treatment and Utilization 261

Introduction 261

Estimating the Unit Cost of Treating Food and

Agricultural Wastewater 262 Estimating Overall Costs of Wastewater Treatment Processes with Substance and Energy Recovery 268

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