J3 300000 200000 100000 0

Castilla-La Mancha

Andalucía Aragón

Castilla y Comunidad León Valenciana

Madrid

Castilla-La Mancha

Andalucía Aragón

Castilla y Comunidad León Valenciana

Madrid

I Sprinkling irrigation □ Drip irrigation □ Surface irrigation □ Other first data was collected (IGME, 2005). This situation stems from the rapid transformation of large areas, into irrigated land, in the surroundings areas of the PNTD. In order to solve the problem, numerous measures have been executed such as the Income Compensation Plan (Plan de Compensación de Rentas, PCR), that will be discussed later in greater depth, and that in broad strokes gave a bonus to the farmers who voluntarily reduced the volume of water applied to agriculture. For times of great water shortage, it is possible to transfer water from the river basin of the Tajo to the PNTD by taking advantage of the infrastructures of the ATS (CES, 2006).

2.1.3 Production Systems

The agrarian systems are defined as ecosystems composed of living beings that are settled in a determined place. These living beings are involved in a process of symbiotic interactions with each other and the surrounding vegetation. In addition, they are affected by the human intervention by means of their cultivation techniques (Urbano and Moro, 1991).

The agrarian systems are derived from the influence on agrarian activity, of a series of factors that are systematically grouped into five large blocks (Lamo de Espinosa and Bahamonde, 1992): Climatic and edafological factors; Biological factors; Economic factors; Social factors; and Political and institutional factors.

The combination of these factors configures an agrarian system (Lamo de Espinosa, 1998). Any agrarian system can be constructed to fulfill different objectives at different moments, at different sites and by different people. Consequently, throughout the history of agriculture, diverse agrarian systems have been developed (Spedding, 1975).

• Forest systems. The vegetative cover is formed by ligneous species.

• Agro-silvicultural systems. Attempt to achieve a balance between forest systems and agriculture.

• Meadows and pasture lands systems. The vegetative cover is formed by permanent meadows and pasturelands (natural meadows of semiarid and dry climates).

• Agricultural systems with habitual farming of the land covered by vegetation. These systems include, in addition to herbaceous and tree crops, set-aside lands.

In the case of semi-arid zones, assuring a high degree of permanent vegetative land cover is essential to avoid water and wind erosion. This positive effect is compatible with the exploitation of the vegetation. The vegetation produces other beneficial environmental effects such as: CO2 absorption and generation of O2, regulation of the water regime, and creation of an ecosystem that insures biodiversity.

In agricultural farms, where herbaceous species are cultivated during a great part of the year, the land remains bare. However, tree crops and forest farms maintain a high percentage of ground cover throughout the year. In CLM, agriculture is the sector that makes the greatest use of land, occupying around 49% of the 7,931,000 ha of area of the region. Forest land occupying 26% and pasturelands occupying 10% are second in importance (Fig. 7). Nevertheless, although the rate of vegetative cover may seem high, the seasonal nature of the herbaceous crops, the high percentage of fallow land (set-aside), as well as the low degree of cover of tree crops, considerably reduces its value.

Figure 7: Land use distribution in Castilla-La Mancha for 2005 (MAPA, 2006).

■ Herbaceous crops 0 Set-aside

□ Natural meadow S Grazing land

Figure 7: Land use distribution in Castilla-La Mancha for 2005 (MAPA, 2006).

In general, the variety of land use in the region demonstrates stability, as the rate of vegetative cover has evolved favorably in recent years (Fig. 8). Forest area and tree crops have increased, whereas the area devoted to herbaceous crops has been reduced. Consequently, at present more vegetation remains on the ground throughout the year. This fact is conditioned by aid directed at reforestation of agricultural lands. In addition, there are different lines of action that promote the forestation of the land, like the obligation to reforest a part of the land in which any type of construction in rustic land has been undertaken.

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment