In addition to national statistics, our analysis is based on data that we collected as part of two recent surveys specifically designed to address irrigation practices and agricultural water management. The China Water Institutions and Management (CWIM) survey of September 2004 was the second round of a panel survey, the first phase of which was conducted in 2001 (Fig. 3.1). Enumerators conducted surveys of community leaders, groundwater managers, surface water irrigation managers and households in 48 villages in Hebei and Henan provinces. The villages were chosen according to geographic properties. In Hebei, villages were chosen from counties near the coast, near the mountains and in the central region between the mountains and the coast. In

Fig. 3.1. Fourteen counties surveyed in China in September 2004. (From China Water Institutions and Management (CWIM) survey.)

Henan, villages were chosen from counties bordering the Yellow River and from counties in irrigation districts at varying distances from the Yellow River.

We conducted a second survey, the North China Water Resource Survey (NCWRS), in December 2004 and January 2005 (Fig. 3.2). This survey of village leaders from 400 villages in Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Henan, Liaoning, Shaanxi and Shanxi provinces used an extended version of the community-level village instrument of the CWIM survey. Using a stratified random sampling strategy for the purpose of generating a sample representative of northern China, we first sorted counties in each of our regionally representative sample provinces into one of four water scarcity categories: very scarce, somewhat scarce, normal and absolutely scarce (mountain/desert).3 We randomly selected two townships within each county and four villages within each township. In total, combining the CWIM and NCWRS surveys, we visited approximately 6 provinces, 60 counties, 126 townships and 448 villages.

The scope of the surveys was quite broad. Each of the survey questionnaires included more than ten sections. Among the sections, there were those that focused on the nature of China's rural water resources, the common types of well and pumping technology. There also were several sections that examined the most important water problems, government water policies and regulations as well as a number of institutional responses (e.g. tube well privatization). Although sections of the survey covered both surface and groundwater resources, we will focus mostly on those villages that have groundwater

Fig. 3.2. Fifty counties surveyed in December 2004 and January 2005. (From North China Water Resource Survey (NCWRS).)

resources (in some cases, even if they were not being used). The survey collected data on many variables for 2 years - 1995 and 2004 - asking about conditions back in time. By weighting our descriptive and multivariate analysis with a set of population weights, we were able to generate point estimates for all of northern China.4

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