Notes

1 Sleepers and dozers are licence-holders who pay for their entitlement annually, but use little or none of it. Typically they run mixed farms with rain-fed crops and substantial livestock holdings, for which they keep water entitlement as insurance in drought years, either for fodder production or direct stock watering. There are no 'use-it or lose-it' provisions (as in the US prior appropriation doctrine) for water licences in Australia.

2 'Conjunctive water management' encompasses both productive and environmental objectives, and some account of any hydraulic interdependency between surface and groundwaters is generally implicit to Australian use of the term. Consistent with the notion of sustainable yield as a 'regime' rather than volume and a rejection of 'prior rights', Australian terminology assumes fairly specific 'flow system' connotations and thus may be distinguished from aggregation of conjunctive use (e.g. according to Raju and Brewer, 2000) and activating use of aquifer storage services (e.g. characteristic of conjunctive water management in the USA, Blomquist et al., 2004).

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