Mark Giordano and Karen G. Villholth
International Water Management Institute
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Published in association with: International Water Management Institute PO Box 2075 Colombo Sri Lanka
©CAB International 2007. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronically, mechanically, by photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owners.
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library, London, UK.
A catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress, Washington, DC.
ISBN-13: 978 1 84593 172 8
Typeset in Optima by SPi, Pondicherry, India
Printed and bound in the UK by Cromwell Press, Trowbridge.
Series Foreword xi
1. The Agricultural Groundwater Revolution: Setting the Stage 1 Mark Giordano and Karen G. Villholth
I The Situation: Overview of Regional and Topical Issues
2. The Groundwater Economy of South Asia: An Assessment 7 of Size, Significance and Socio-ecological Impacts
3. The Development, Challenges and Management of Groundwater 37 in Rural China
Jinxia Wang, Jikun Huang, Amelia Blanke, Qiuqiong Huang and Scott Rozelle
4. Rural Economic Transitions: Groundwater Use in the Middle 63 East and Its Environmental Consequences
J.A. Tony Allan
5. Sub-Saharan Africa: Opportunistic Exploitation 79 Mutsa Masiyandima and Mark F. Giordano
6. Groundwater in Central America: Its Importance, Development 100 and Use, with Particular Reference to Its Role in Irrigated
Maureen Ballestero, Virginia Reyes and Yamileth Astorga
II Current Management Paradigms
7. Community Management of Groundwater 131 Edella Schlager
8. Instruments and Institutions for Groundwater Management 153 Karin Erika Kemper
9. When the Well Runs Dry but Livelihood Continues: Adaptive 173 Responses to Groundwater Depletion and Strategies for
Mitigating the Associated Impacts Marcus Moench
III Case Studies and Innovative Experience
10. The Groundwater Recharge Movement in India 195 Ramaswamy Sakthivadivel
11. Energy-Irrigation Nexus in South Asia: Improving Groundwater 211 Conservation and Power Sector Viability
Tushaar Shah, Christopher Scott, Avinash Kishore and Abhishek Sharma
12. To Adapt or Not to Adapt: The Dilemma between Long-term 243 Resource Management and Short-term Livelihood
13. Lessons from Intensive Groundwater Use In Spain: Economic 266 and Social Benefits and Conflicts
M. Ramón Llamas and Alberto Garrido
14. Groundwater Management in the High Plains Aquifer 296 in the USA: Legal Problems and Innovations
John C. Peck
15. Institutional Directions in Groundwater Management in Australia 320 Hugh Turral and Imogen Fullagar
16. Sharing Groundwater Information, Knowledge and Experience 362 on a Worldwide Scale
Jac A.M. van der Gun
17. Groundwater Use in a Global Perspective - Can It be Managed? 393 Karen G. Villholth and Mark Giordano
J.A. Tony Allan, King's College London & SOAS University of London, SOAS, Thornhaugh Street, London, WC1H 0XG, UK, Fax/Tel: +44 20 78984058, E-mail: [email protected]
Yamileth Astorga, Coordinator of Global Water Partnership of Central America (GWP-CA), Oficial Tecnico, GWP-Centroamérica, Correo electrónico, Fax: +240-9934, Tel: +506-241 0101, E-mail: [email protected]
Maureen Ballestero, Coordinator of Global Water Partnership of Central America (GWP-CA), Oficial Técnico, GWP-Centroamérica, Correo electrónico, Fax: +240-9934, Tel: +506-241 0101, E-mail: [email protected] Amelia Blanke, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA, Fax: +53 0 752 6770, Tel: +530 752 6770, E-mail: [email protected]
Imogen Fullagar, Charles Sturt University, c/o CSIRO Land and Water, GPO Box 1666, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia, Tel: +2 6246 5858, Mobile: +423 149 497, E-mail: [email protected]
Alberto Garrido, Department of Agricultural Economics, Technical University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain, Fax: +34 91 3944-845, E-mail: [email protected] upm.es
Mark Giordano, International Water Management Institute, 127, Sunil Mawatha, Pelawatte, Battaramulla, Sri Lanka, Fax: 94112786854, E-mail: [email protected] cgiar.org
Jikun Huang, Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jia 11 Datun Road, Anwai, Beijing 100101, PR China, Fax: +861064856533, E-mail: [email protected]
Qiuqiong Huang , Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota, 249e Classroom Office Building, Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA, E-mail: [email protected]. Karin Erika Kemper, World Bank (South Asia Sustainable Development Department), 1818H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA, Fax: +1 202 614 1074, E-mail: [email protected]
Avinash Kishore, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Robertson Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544-1013, USA, E-mail: [email protected]
M. Ramón Llamas, Department of Geodynamics, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain, Fax: +3491 3944-845, E-mail: [email protected] ucm.es
Mutsa Masiyandima, International Water Management Institute, 141, Cresswell Street, Weavind Park 0184, Pretoria, South Africa, Fax: +27 12 8459110, E-mail: [email protected]
Marcus Moench, Institute for Social and Environmental Transition (ISEI), 948 North Street, Suite 7, Boulder, CO 80304, USA, Fax +720 564 0653, E-mail: [email protected]
Srinivas Mudrakartha, Vikram Sarabhai Centre for Development Interaction (VIKSAT) Nehru Foundation for Development, Ahmedabad 380054, India, Fax: +91-79-26856220, E-mail: [email protected]
John C. Peck, University of Kansas School of Law, Lawrence, KS 66045; Special Counsel, Foulston Siefkin LLP, Overland Park, KS 66210, USA, Tel: +1 785 864 9228, E-mail: [email protected]
Virginia Reyes, Coordinator of Global Water Partnership of Central America (GWP-CA), Oficial Técnico, GWP-Centroamérica, Correo electrónico, Fax: +240 9934, Tel: +506-241 0101, E-mail: [email protected] Scott Rozelle, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA, Fax: +530 752 6770, Tel:+530 752 6770, E-mail: [email protected]
Ramaswamy Sakthivadivel, 33 First East Street, Kamrajnagar, Thiruvanmiyur, Chennai 600 041, Tamil Nadu, India, E-mail: [email protected] Edella Schlager, University of Arizona, School of Public Administration and Policy, McClelland Hall, Room 405, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA, E-mail: [email protected]
Christopher Scott, 2601 Spencer Road, Chevy Chase, MD 20815, USA, Tel: +301 587 5485, E-mail: [email protected]
Tushaar Shah, IWMI-TATA Water Policy Program, Anand Field Office, Elecon Premises, Anand-Sojitra Road, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388 129, Anand, Gujarat, India, Fax: +91 26923 229310, E-mail: [email protected]
Abhishek Sharma, PriceWaterhouseCoopers, PricewaterhouseCoopers Pvt. Ltd., PwC Centre Saidulajab, Opposite D-Block Saket, Mehrauli Badarpur Road, New Delhi-110 030, Telephone: (11) 41250000, Fax: (11)4125 0250 Email: [email protected], [email protected]
Hugh Turral, International Water Management Institute, I27, Sunil Mawatha, Pelawatte, Battaramulla, Sri Lanka, Fax: 94II2786854, E-mail: [email protected]
Jac A.M. van der Gun, International Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre (IGRAC), PO Box 800I5, 3508 TA Utrecht, The Netherlands, Fax: +3I 30 256 4755, E-mail: [email protected]
Karen G. Villholth, International Water Management Institute, I27, Sunil Mawatha, Pelawatte, Battaramulla, Sri Lanka, Fax: 94112786854, E-mail: [email protected]
Jinxia Wang, Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jia II Datun Road, Anwai, Beijing I00I0I, PR China, Fax: +86I064856533, E-mail: [email protected]
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Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture
There is broad consensus on the need to improve water management and to invest in water for food, as these are critical to meeting the millennium development goals (MDGs). The role of water in food and livelihood security is a major issue of concern in the context of persistent poverty and continued environmental degradation. Although there is considerable knowledge on the issue of water management, an overarching picture on the water-food-livelihood-environment nexus is missing, leaving uncertainties about management and investment decisions that will meet both food and environmental security objectives.
The Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture (CA) is an innovative multi-institute process aimed at identifying existing knowledge and stimulating thought on ways to manage water resources to continue meeting the needs of both humans and ecosystems. The CA critically evaluates the benefits, costs and impacts of the last 50 years of water development and the challenges currently facing communities. It assesses innovative solutions and explores consequences of potential investment and management decisions. The CA is designed as a learning process, engaging networks of stakeholders to produce knowledge synthesis and methodologies. The main output of the CA is an assessment report that aims to guide investment and management decisions in the near future considering their impact over the next 50 years in order to enhance food and environmental security to support the achievement of the MDGs. This assessment report is backed by CA research and knowledgesharing activities.
The primary assessment research findings are presented in a series of books that will form the scientific basis for the CA. The books will cover a range of vital topics in the areas of water, agriculture, food security and ecosystems - the entire spectrum of developing and managing water in agriculture, from fully irrigated to fully rain-fed lands. They are about people and society, why they decide to adopt certain practices and not others and, in particular, how water management can help poor people. They are about ecosystems - how agriculture affects ecosystems, the goods and services ecosystems provide for food security, and how water can be managed to meet both food and environmental security objectives. This is the second book in the series.
Effectively managing water to meet food and environmental objectives will require the concerted action of individuals from across several professions and disciplines - farmers, fisherfolk, water managers, economists, hydrolo-gists, irrigation specialists, agronomists and social scientists. This book represents an effort to bring a diverse group of people together to present a truly cross-disciplinary perspective on water, food and environmental issues within the coastal zone. The complete set of books would be invaluable for resource managers, researchers and field implementers. These books will provide source material from which policy statements, practical manuals and educational and training material can be prepared.
The CA is done by a coalition of partners that includes 11 Future Harvest agricultural research centres supported by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and partners from some 80 research and development institutes globally. Co-sponsors of the assessment, institutes that are interested in the results and help frame the assessment, are the Ramsar Convention, the Convention on Biological Diversity, FAO and the CGIAR.
We appreciate the financial support in the production of this book from the governments of the Netherlands and Switzerland for the Comprehensive Assessment.
David Molden Series Editor
International Water Management Institute
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