The four case studies demonstrate that there are diverse starting points for strengthening participatory ecological approaches to farmer weed management. These case studies and examples are drawn from both developed and developing countries. In the USA and Europe, a reduced farm population occupies the best land and is supported by a substantial information infrastructure. In Asia, Latin America, and Africa, a large rural population farms much marginal land with only minimal support from an erratically funded infrastructure for education and information. For improved weed management as part of a more efficient, productive, and resource-conserving agriculture, the two worlds can both be well served by strengthening decision-making capabilities among farmers. This can be accomplished by more effectively linking extensionists, scientists, and farmers.
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