Survival of weed seeds in the soil

The seeds of most annual and stationary perennial weeds persist in the seed bank for at least a few years, and many remain viable for decades if conditions are favorable. Excavations from dated archaeological strata indicate that some agricultural weed species, including Chenopodium album, Stellaria media, and Lamium purpureum, probably remain viable for several hundred years (Odum, 1965), although movement of younger seeds into the strata by soil animals cannot be excluded with certainty. However, the cool, moist, dark, undisturbed environments of such sites are highly favorable to

Table 2.4. Characteristics ofsome species with negligible response to germination cues associated with tillage
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