• The number of seeds that a plant produces will depend on many interacting factors including genetic constraints, germination date, plant size and environmental conditions. There is a trade-off between seed size and seed number.

• Seed dispersal moves seeds away from the parent plant and may lead to higher seedling survivorship. Animals, water, wind, humans or machinery may disperse seeds.

• Seeds are dispersed over time by remaining dormant in the seed bank. Dormancy can be innate, induced or enforced.

• Seeds germinate in response to environmental conditions such as light, temperature and moisture.

• Seedling establishment is dependent on environmental conditions. Conditions that are optimal for germination may not be optimal for seedling establishment.

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