• Herbivory is the consumption of plant tissue by animals.

• Immobile (sessile) plants have developed a variety of ways to avoid, tolerate or defend against herbivory.

• Seed predation is a special type of herbivory that results in significant and often complex effects on plant population dynamics.

• Parasitic plants obtain nutrients, shelter and support from other plants.

• Mutualistic interactions provide benefits to both individuals and are especially important in stressed environments.

• The net effect of one individual on another is the result of all beneficial effects minus all negative effects.

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