• Herbivory is the consumption of plant tissue by animals.
• Immobile (sessile) plants have developed a variety of ways to avoid, tolerate or defend against herbivory.
• Seed predation is a special type of herbivory that results in significant and often complex effects on plant population dynamics.
• Parasitic plants obtain nutrients, shelter and support from other plants.
• Mutualistic interactions provide benefits to both individuals and are especially important in stressed environments.
• The net effect of one individual on another is the result of all beneficial effects minus all negative effects.
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