• Asexual reproduction (apomixis) can occur through the production of seeds without fertilization (agamospermy) or clonal reproduction (vegetative growth).

• Agamosperm reproduction has some of the benefits of seed production; however, the lack of genetic recombination means that novel genotypes are not formed and that deleterious mutations may accumulate.

• Agamospermic species vary in their ability to colonize.

• Clonal reproduction allows the individual to bypass the seedling stage of growth lowering the mortality of new individuals, but, again, there is no new genetic recombination.

• Reproducing clonally increases a species' colonizing ability and persistence.

• One species may reproduce via a combination of sexual reproduction, agamospermy and clonal growth, but there is a trade-off of resources among these types of reproduction.

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