Seed germination off between the number of seeds an individual can produce and the size of seeds. The number of successful seedlings produced by an individual plant depends on the total number of seeds it produces, and on their size.

Sexual reproduction and agamospermy

Seedling establishment

' Growth

' Growth

Fig. 6.1. Life cycle of plants has no real beginning or end. One chooses an arbitrary 'start'.

high rates of mortality because they are small and lack long-term nutritional reserves. It seems that the odds are against the survival of seeds and seedlings, and yet, many individuals have strategies that increase their chance of survival.

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