There are many types of interactions where one individual gains an absolute benefit over another. For example, in herbivory, parasitism and mutualism (refer to Table 8.1), at least one of the individuals benefits from the interaction. Rather than being distinct processes, there is a gradation of positive to negative effects (Bronstein, 1994a) (Fig. 9.1). In this chapter we look at her-bivory, parasitism and mutualisms as separate interactions, and then consider the net effect of all types of interactions on populations.

© 2003 CAB International. Weed Ecology in Natural (B.D. Booth, S.D. Murphy and C.J. Swanton)

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