Aarssen, L.W. (1995) Hypotheses for the evolution of apical dominance in plants: implications for the interpretation of overcompensation. Oikos 74, 149-156.
Agrawal, A.A. (2000) Overcompensation of plants in response to herbivory and the by-product benefits of mutualism. Trends in Plant Science 5, 309-313.
Andrews, T.S. (1995) Dispersal of seeds of giant Sporobolus spp after ingestion by grazing cattle. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 35, 353-356.
Baker, F.A. and Knowles, K. (1992) Impact of dwarf mistletoes on jack pine forests in Manitoba. Plant Disease 76, 1256-1259.
Belsky, A.J., Carson, W.P., Jensen, C.L. and Fox, G.A. (1993) Overcompensation by plants - herbivore optimization or red-herring. Evolutionary Ecology 7, 109-121.
Blaney, C.S. and Kotanen, P.M. (2001) Post-dispersal losses to seed predators: an experimental comparison of native and exotic old field plants. Canadian Journal of Botany 79, 284-292.
Blossey, B., Casagrande, R., Tewksbury, L., Landis, D.A., Wiedenmann, R.N. and Ellis, D.R. (2001a) Nontarget feeding of leaf-beetles introduced to control purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.). Natural Areas Journal 21, 368-377.
Blossey, B., Skinner, L.C. and Taylor J. (2001b) Impact and management of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North America. Biodiversity and Conservation 10, 1787-1807.
Bronstein, J.L. (1994a) Conditional outcomes in mutualistic interactions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 9, 214-217.
Bronstein, J.L. (1994b) Our current understanding of mutualism. Quarterly Review of Biology 69, 31-51.
Cates, R.G. (1975) The interface between slugs and wild ginger: some evolutionary aspects. Ecology 56, 391-400.
Chittapur, B.M., Hunshal, C. S. and Shenoy, H. (2001) Allelopathy in parasitic weed management: role of catch and trap crops. Allelopathy Journal 8, 147-159.
Clements, D.R., Peterson, D.J. and Prasad, R. (2001) The biology of Canadian weeds. 112. Ulex europaeus L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 81, 325-337
Cory, J.S. and Myers, J.H. (2000) Direct and indirect ecological effects of biological control. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15, 137-139.
Crawley, M.J. (1989) The relative importance of vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores in plant population dynamics. In: Bernays, E.A. (ed.) Insect-Plant Interactions, Vol. 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 45-71.
Crawley, M.J. (1992) Seed predators and plant population dynamics. In: Fenner, M. (ed.) Seeds: The Ecology of Regeneration in Plant Communities. CAB International, Wallingford, pp. 157-191.
Cromar, H.E., Murphy, S.D. and Swanton, C.J. (1999) Influence of tillage and crop residue on post-dispersal predation of weed seeds. Weed Science 47, 184-194.
Cyr, H. and Pace, M.L. (1993) Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Nature 361, 148-150.
Dahlberg, A. (2001) Community ecology of ectomycorrhizal fungi: an advancing interdisciplinary field. New Phytologist 150, 555-562.
Elliot, S.L., Sabelis, M.W., Janssen, A., van der Geest, L.P.S., Beerling, E.A.M. and Fransen, J. (2000) Can plants use entomopathogens as bodyguards? Ecology Letters 3, 228-235.
Facelli, J.M. (1994) Multiple indirect effects of plant litter affect the establishment of woody seedlings in old fields. Ecology 75, 1727-1735.
Foroni, J. and Nunez-Farfan, J. (2000) Evolutionary ecology of Datura stramonium: genetic variation and costs for tolerance to defoliation. Evolution 54, 789-797.
Gardner, R.O. and Early, J.W. (1996) The naturalisation of banyan figs (Ficus spp. Moraceae) and their pollinating wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 34, 103-110.
Goodwin, J. (1992) The role of mycorrhizal fungi in competitive interactions among native bunchgrasses and alien weeds: a review and synthesis. Northwestern Science 66, 251-260.
Herms, D.A. and Matton, W.J. (1992) The dilemma of plants - to grow or defend. Quarterly Review of Biology 67, 283-335.
Janzen, D.H. (1979) How to be a fig. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 10, 13-51.
Jennings, J.C., Apel-Birkhold, P.C., Bailey, B.A. and Anderson, J.D. (2000) Induction of ethylene biosynthesis and necrosis in weed leaves by a Fusarium oxysporum protein. Weed Science 48, 7-14.
Jordan, N.R., Zhang, J. and Huerd, S. (2000) Arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi: potential roles in weed management. Weed Research 40, 397-410.
Kaltz, O. and Schmid, B. (1995) Plant venereal disease: a model for integrating genetics, ecology and epidemiology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 10, 221-222.
Longman, K.A. and Jenik, J. (1974) Tropical Rainforest and its Environment. Longman, London.
Louda, S.M., Keeler, K.H. and Holt R.D. (1990) Herbivore influences on plant performance and competitive interactions. In: Grace, J.B. and Tilman, D. (eds) Perspectives on Plant Competition. Academic Press, San Diego, California, pp. 413-444.
Marler, M.J., Zabinski, C.A. and Callaway, R.M. (1999) Mycorrhizas indirectly enhance competitive effects of an invasive forb on a native bunchgrass. Ecology 80, 1180-1186.
Murphy, S.D. and Aarssen, L.W. (1995) In vitro allelopathic effects of pollen from three Hieracium species (Asteraceae) and pollen transfer to sympatric Fabaceae. American Journal of Botany 82, 37-45.
Musser, R.O., Hum-Musser, S.M., Eichenseer, H., Pfeiffer, M., Ervin, G., Murphy, J.B. and Felton, G.W. (2002) Herbivory: caterpillar saliva beats plant defences. Nature 416, 599-600.
Nadel, H., Frank, J.H. and Knight, R.J. (1992) Escapees and accomplices: the naturalization of exotic Ficus and their associated faunas in Florida. Florida Naturalist 75, 29-38.
Noy Meir, I. (1993) Compensating growth of grazed plants and its relevance to the use of rangelands. Ecological Applications 3, 32-34.
Olson, D. and Wallander, R. (1999) Carbon allocation in Euphorbia esula and neighbours after defoliation. Canadian Journal of Botany 77, 1641-1647.
Parker, C. and Riches, C.R. (1993) Parasitic Weeds of the World: Biology and Control. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Peterson, D.J. and Prasad, R. (1998) The biology of Canadian weeds. 109. Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 78, 497-504.
Price, P.W., Bouton, C.E., Gross, P., McPheron, B.A., Thompson, J.N. and Weis, E.A. (1980) Interactions among three trophic levels: influence of plants on interactions between insect herbivores and natural enemies. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 11, 41-65.
Rambert, B., Hellqvist, S., Ekbom, B. and Banks, J.E. (2001) Assessment of trap crops for Lygus spp. in lettuce. International Journal of Pest Management 47, 273-276
Richardson, D.M. and Higgins, S.I. (1998) Pines as invaders in the southern hemisphere. In: Richardson, D.M. (ed.) Ecology and Biogeography of Pinus. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 450-473.
Richardson, D.M., Allsopp, N., D'Antonio, C.M., Milton, S.J. and Rejmanek, M. (2000) Plant invasion - the role of mutualisms. Biological Review 75, 65-93.
Rosenheim, J.A., Kaya, H.K., Ehler, L.E., Marois, J.J. and Jaffee, B.A. (1995) Intraguild predation among biological-control agents: theory and evidence. Biological Control 5, 303-335.
Sabelis, M.W., van Baalen, M., Bakker, F.M., Bruin, J., Drukker, B., Egas, M., Janssen, A.R.M., Lesna, I.K., Pels, B., van Rijn, P.C.J. and Scutareanu, P. (1999) The evolution of direct and indirect plant defence against herbivorous arthropods. In: Olff, H., Brown, V.K. and Drent, R.H. (eds) Herbivores: Between Plants and Predators. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, pp. 109-166.
Sandras, V.O. (1996) Cotton compensatory growth after loss of reproductive organs as affected by availability of resources and duration of recovery. Oecologia 106, 432-439.
Schierenbeck, K.A., Mack, R.N. and Sharitz, R.R. (1994) Effects of herbivory on growth and biomass allocation in native and introduced species of Lonicera. Ecology 75, 1661-1672.
Scholte, K. (2000). Growth and development of plants with potential for use as trap crops for potato cyst nematodes and their effects on the numbers of juveniles in cysts. Annals of Applied Biology 137, 31-42.
Schroft, G. (1998) A review of belowground interactions in agroforestry, focusing on mechanisms and management options. Agroforestry Systems 43, 5-34.
Shykoff, J.A. and Kaltz, O. (1998) Phenotypic changes in host plants diseased by Microbotryum vio-laceum: parasite manipulation, side effects, and trade-offs. International Journal of Plant Sciences 159, 236-243.
Silvertown, J. (1980) The evolutionary ecology of mast seedling in trees. Biological Journal of the Linnaean Society 14, 235-250.
Strauss, S.Y. and Agrawal, A.A. (1999) The ecology and evolution of plant tolerance to herbivory. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14, 179-185.
van der Heijden, M.G.A., Klironomos, J.N., Ursic, M., Moutoglis, P., Streitwolf-Engel, R., Boiler, T., Wiemeken, A. and Sanders, I.R. (1998) Mycorrhizal fungal diversity determines plant biodiversity, ecosystem variability, and productivity. Nature 396, 69-72. Venecz, J.I. and Aarssen, L.W. (1998) Effects of shoot apex removal in Lythrum salicaria (Lythraceae): assessing the costs of reproduction and apical dominance. Annales BotaniciFennici 35, 101-111. Wall, D.H. and Moore, J.C. (1999) Interactions underground. Soil biodiversity, mutualism, and ecosystem processes. BioScience 49, 109-117. Zimdahl, R.C. (1999) Fundamentals of Weed Science, 2nd edn. Academic Press, San Diego, California.
Was this article helpful?