Wind turbine test according to the German FGWTG3

The on-site test should serve the following objectives Test the control system and the auxiliary units For both cases, the wind turbine should be tested for the following operation points Table 6. Operation points prior to test. In this case, the voltage dip generator must have an X R ratio of at least 3, and the symmetrical fault level on the transformer's high voltage side must be at least 3-Prated. The voltage dip generator must be configured in no-load test to obtain the three phase and two...

Voltage dip generator

Voltage dip generators are based on the use of two impedances, as it is shown in Fig. 12 (Niiranen, 2005, 2006 Gamesa eolica, 2006 Gamesa innovation and technology, 2006). The parallel impedance enables the generation of the fault while the series impedance immunizes the grid from the dip and the test can be performed without affecting other systems connected to it. Fig. 12. Dip generator scheme and its position with respect to the windmill and the wind farm. 5.1.1 20 kV 5 MW Voltage dip...

Mathematical model of DFIG

The configuration of a DFIG, with corresponding static converters and controllers is given in Fig.1. Two converts are connected between the rotor and grid, following a back to back scheme with a dc intermediate link. Fig.2 gives the reference frames, where a, b and c indicate stator phase a, b and c winding axes A, B and C indicate rotor phase A, B and C winding axes, respectively x-y is the synchronous rotation coordinate system in the grid side d is the angle between q axis and x axis....

Potential habitat enhancement by offshore wind farms

As stated previously, the introduction of turbines and their associated scour protection has the capacity to increase the abundance and diversity of both species and habitats. The level of increase depends on the type of scour protection deployed, with the three main materials - boulders, gravel and synthetic sea-fronds - being included in a study which aimed to quantify the amount of habitat area created. The need to deploy scour protection around the base of turbines depends on a number of...

Ryp min

Upmin - minimal admitted operating voltage in kV (usually Upmin 0,9 UN), Spmax - maximum apparent power in MVA, Ipmax - maximum admitted load. A necessary condition of connecting DPGS to the HV network is researching whether the increase of load (especially in faulty conditions e.g. one of the lines is falling out) is not leading to an overlap. Because of the security reasons and the falsifying factors influencing the impedance evaluation, it is assumed that the protection will not...

Wind turbine faultride through

As it has been said, one of the main problems for power quality are voltage dips. Due to high renewable penetration level in transmission system, Transmission System Operators (TSO) demand to this sort of energy source support voltage under voltage sags. This obligation has provoked a huge investment in devices to support wind systems during voltage dips. Fig. 2 shows the three main technologies in the wind turbine industry. Their behaviour is different in continuous operation and during...

Proposed control design method 21 System uncertainties

System nonlinear characteristics, variations of system configuration due to unpredictable disturbances, loading conditions etc., cause various uncertainties in the power system. A controller which is designed without considering system uncertainties in the system modeling, the robustness of the controller against system uncertainties can not be guaranteed. As a result, the controller may fail to operate and lose stabilizing effect under various operating conditions. To enhance the robustness of...

Model of wind farm of DFIG type

In this chapter, a simple aggregated model of large wind farm in the small signal stability analysis is employed. We assume that currently the operating conditions of all wind generators in a wind farm are same, and the wind farm is considered to be formed with a number of wind generators jointed in parallel. Therefore, the wind farm can be reduced to a single machine equivalent. For a wind farm consisted of N wind generators, the values of stator and rotor voltages are same as the value of...

Copyright 2011 InTech

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References

Wind Power in Power Systems, Wiley, ISBN 0-470-85508-8, Chichester Akhmatov, V. (2002). Variable-speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generators part i modelling in dynamic simulation tools. Wind Engineering, Vol. 26, No. 2, 85108, ISSN 0309-524X de Alegr a, IM. Andreu, J. Mart n, JL. Iba ez, P. Villate, JL. & Camblong, H. (2007). Connection requirements for wind farms A survey on technical requierements and regulation, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,...

Introduction

Global warming is one of the most serious enviromental problems facing the world community today. It is typified by increasing the average temperature of Earth's surface and extremes of weather both hot and cold. Therefore, implementing a smart and renewable energies such as wind power, photo voltaic etc are expected to deeply reduce heat-trapping emissions. Moreover, wind power is expected to be economically attractive when the wind speed of the proposed site is considerable for electrical...

Evaluation of the wind installation response

Once the system has been modelled, the evaluation simulations must be performed. The test categories and the operation point prior the voltage dip in the verification process are the same of the in-field test, shown in Table 3 and Table 6 (section 5.2), but, in the simulation, the reactive power before the voltage dip must be zero. In the simulation results, the next requirements must be checked 1. Continuity of supply. The wind farm must withstand the dips without disconnection. The simulation...

Sum of partially correlated phasor densities of power from several turbines

4.1 Sum of fully correlated and fully uncorrelated spectral components If turbine fluctuations at frequency f of a wind farm with N turbines are completely synchronized, all the phases have the same value f) and the modulus of fully correlated If there is no synchronization at all, the fluctuation angles i(f) at the turbines are stochastically independent. Since Pi, uncorr (f) has a random argument, its sum across the wind farm will partially cancel and inequality (13) holds true. This approach...

Asymptotic properties of the wind farm spectrum

The fluctuations of a group of turbines can be divided into the correlated and the uncorrelated components. On the one hand, slow fluctuations (f < 10-3 Hz) are mainly due to meteorological dynamics and they are widely correlated, both spatially and temporally. Slow fluctuations in power output of nearby farms are quite correlated and wind forecast models try to predict them to optimize power dispatch. On the other hand, fast wind speed fluctuations are mainly due to turbulence and microsite...

Robust frequency control in a hybrid winddiesel power system

The basic system configuration of an isolated hybrid wind-diesel power generation system as shown in Fig. 5 (Das et.al. 1999) is used in this study. The base capacity of the system is 350 kVA. The diesel is used to supply power to system when wind power could not adequately provide power to customer. Moreover, The PPC is installed in the wind side while the governor is equipped with the diesel side. In addition to the random wind energy supply, it is assumed that loads with sudden change have...

Z2 a 09 ZAB 09ZBC

Tripping time should be one step higher than the first one t2 At s from the range of (0.3 0.5) s. Typically for the digital protections and fast switches, a delay of 0.3 s is taken impedance reach of the third zone is maximum 90 of the second zone of the shortest line outgoing from the subsubstation B z3 a 0.9 _zab + 0.9 (zbc + o.9zcd ) For the selectivity condition, tripping time for this zone cannot by shorter than t3 2At s. Improper fault elimination due to the low fault current value As...

Wind turbine model

In modelling turbine rotor, there are a lot of different ways to represent the wind turbine. Functions approximation is a way of obtaining a relatively accurate representation of a wind turbine. It uses only a few parameters as input data to the turbine model. The different mathematical models may be more or less complex, and they may involve very different mathematical approaches, but they all generate curves with the same fundamental shapes as those of a physical wind turbine. In general, the...

Fault ride through certification procedure for power generating units

Once the requirements for wind power system have been established, another important point is how wind turbine manufacturers and wind park operators can prove the fulfilment of Grid Codes. The Spanish Wind Energy Association (AEE) has developed the document Procedure for Verification Validation and Certification of the Requirements of the OP 12.3 on the Response of Wind Farms in the Event of Voltage Dips (PVVC), and the German Fordergesellschaft Windenergie und andere Erneuerbare Energien (FGW)...

Application example

The IEEE New England (10-generator-39-bus) system was employed as benchmark to test the proposed model and method. The single line diagram of the test system is given in Fig. 8. In this system, the classical generator model is applied to the synchronous generator G2. The 4th order generator model with a simplified 3rd order exciter model is applied to the remaining 9 synchronous generators. It should be noticed that there is no any power system stabilizer considered in the test system. All...

International grid code requirements

Wind farms should contribute to power system control (voltage and frequency) and also to the electricity network recover in case of networks faults such as voltage dips or swells. In the most cases a wind turbine should work with a power factor of 0.90 lagging to 0.95 leading and the frequency should situate within the range from 47.5 Hz to 52 Hz. The most outstanding international Grid Codes are the following USA FERC Interconnection for Wind Energy 18 CFR Part 35 (Docket No. RM05-4-001 Order...

Attitudes towards offshore wind farms

In the following section, the attitude studies focusing on offshore wind farms are presented (Table 3). Focus of the paper_Prior experience variables_Effect of the variables Perception of visual impacts from offshore wind farms at 4, 8 and 12 km from the shore Attitude towards more offshore turbines Perception of visual impacts from offshore wind farms Location of on-land turbines in the neighbourhood View to offshore turbines from permanent residence or summerhouse View to on-land turbines...

Conclusion

Prior experience with wind turbines is found to be a significant determinant of individual attitude towards wind farms in many studies. With the increasing level of wind power development on a global scale, this information can be of particular importance. The information entailed in the impacts from prior experience can thus serve as a guideline for policy planners and wind generation developers to increase the wind power capacity in an effective manner, so that opposition or negative...

Probabilistic small signal stability analysis with wind farm 71 Principle of Monte Carlo simulation

Monte Carlo method is a class of computational algorithms that rely on repeated random sampling to compute their results. In uncertainty analysis, the relationship between the dependent variable and independent variable can be described as where X x1, x2, , xm is the vector of the independent variables and Z z1,z2, ,zn is the vector of the dependent variable. h ft1(X), h2(X) , , hm(X) represents the function relationship between input variable and output variable. In general, if h is very...

INTECH open

Free online editions of InTech Books and Journals can be found at www.intechopen.com Chapter 1 Local Attitudes towards Wind Power The Effect of Prior Experience 3 Part 2 Power Network Requirements 15 Chapter 2 Wind Farms and Grid Codes 17 Mar a Paz Comech, Miguel Garc a-Gracia, Susana Mart n Arroyo and Miguel ngel Mart nez Guill n Chapter 3 Active and Reactive Power Formulations for Grid Code Requirements Verification 41 Vicente Le n-Mart nez and Joaqu n Monta ana-Romeu to Estimating Hydraulic...

Summary

The expansion of offshore wind farm development has the potential to bring about great benefits. Not only will the increase in renewable energy generation help in the fight against climate change, but through the introduction of new habitats into the marine environment, turbines can also act as artificial reefs, potentially increasing both species and habitat diversity. For true artificial reef design and installation, a number of key factors need to be considered, including geographical...

Voltage dip generator model

In PVVC the system shown in Fig. 19 is proposed. In this system, the voltage measured in the field test is introduced in the simulation and reproduced by a voltage source. Thus, the wind turbine model is subjected to the same voltage than the wind turbine during the field test and only the active and reactive power must be compared to validate the model. Fig. 19. Voltage dip generator representation in validation simulation. .0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.

Wind turbine test according to the Spanish PVVC

The Spanish PVVC distinguish between two different type tests Test for validating the simulation model General Verification Process Test for direct observance of the OP 12.3 Particular Verification Process For both cases, the wind turbine should be tested for the following operation points Table 1. Operation points prior to test. Table 1. Operation points prior to test. The depth of the voltage dip must be independent of the wind turbine tested. Therefore, a no- load test must be performed...

Active and reactive phenomena according to the unified theory

Unified Theory Le n et al., 2001 establishes the active and the reactive phenomena occur because the fundamental positive-sequence voltages and currents. This consideration also is implicitly established by the p-q-r theory Kim et al., 2002 and Emanuel's theory, included in the IEEE Standard 1459-2010. Importance of the fundamental-frequency positive-sequence quantities is they determinate the main magnetic field and the useful torque of the wind generators and, consequently, the adequate...

Unified theorys active and reactive currents

Let's consider the equivalent circuit of a wind-generator connected to the grid, represented in fig.1. Fundamental-frequency voltages obtained at the point of common coupling PCC by Fourier's analysis are unbalanced, in general, and their CRMS line to line values VAB, VBc, VcA can be decomposed into the positive-sequence VAB and the negative-sequence VAB- components, by Stokvis-Fortescue expressions where a 1 120 and the voltage symmetrical components are obtained as VAB 1 VAB aVBC a VCA VAB a...

Model validation

The Spanish PVVC and the German FGW-TG4 FGW, 2009 give the procedures to validate wind turbine systems by comparing the results obtained by simulation and that obtained from on-site test. PVVC and FGW-TG4 gives the maximum deviation and the specific time intervals for the comparison of the results. The Spanish PVVC establishes a time window of 1 s with 100 ms before the voltage dip, and the German FGW-TG4, 500 ms before the voltage dip and 2 s after the voltage recovery. Fig. 18 shows the...