Table 2 comprises a list of studies that analyse the potential relations between attitudes towards on-land turbines and prior experience with wind turbines.
Focusing on attitudes, and the local intention to oppose turbines, Johansson & Laike (2007) tested in a Swedish study if residential prior experience variables related to the distance to the local turbines and to the view on these turbines. None of the variables are found to be significant in influencing individual perception and possible opposition. In a Danish study by Ladenburg (2008) the attitude towards more on-land turbines based on a survey from 2003-2004 was analysed. The study included two experience variables, e.g. whether the respondent could see on-land or/and offshore wind farms from the permanent/summer residence. The results suggest that only in the case that the respondent can see both on-land and offshore wind turbines (fiview On-Land and Offshore) prior information seems to influence the attitude towards more on-land turbines. In this particular case, prior information has a negative influence. Accordingly, respondents who have both an on-land and offshore wind farm in their view have a more negative attitude towards the prospect of a further increase of land-based turbines compared to respondent who either do not have a wind turbine in the view shed or have an on-land or offshore wind farm in the view shed from the permanent/summer residence.
In a following study, Ladenburg & Dahlgaard (2011) asked respondents about the attitude towards the existing on-land wind turbines. The relationship between attitude and prior experience were analysed by using information on whether the respondent could see on-land or/and offshore wind farms from the permanent/summer residence and the perceived number of wind turbines that each respondent sees on a daily basis. In addition, interactions between having a view shed to a wind turbine and the number of wind turbines seen on a daily basis were also tested. The test of the effect of prior experience showed that having a wind turbine in the view shed did not influence the attitude. Respondents who could see an on-land or/and an offshore wind turbine from their permanent/summer residence were equally positive/negative towards existing on-land wind turbines as the respondents who did not have a wind turbine in the view shed. Interestingly, the number of turbines seen daily had a significant effect on the attitude. More specifically, Ladenburg & Dahlgaard (2011) showed that respondents who see more than 5 turbines/day (3>s turbines per day) have a more negative attitude compared to respondents, who see fewer turbines (0-5 turbines/day). Among the respondents who see 6-10, 11-20 or more than 20 turbines each day, attitudes are not significantly different between the respondents.
Based on the same data set as Ladenburg & Dahlgaard (2011), Ladenburg et al. (2011) analysed in a complementary study whether the number of land-based wind turbines seen on a daily basis affects the attitude toward more on-land wind turbines. The analysis suggests that having more than 20 turbines in the local area has a significant negative influence on the attitude towards more on-land turbines ([!> 20 turunes per day <0). Indeed, they found that the relation between attitude towards more on-land wind turbines and the number of turbines seen on a daily basis is dependent on whether the respondents have a view to on-land turbines or not from the residence. More specifically, the respondents who have an on-land wind turbine in the view seem to be highly sensitive towards the number of turbines seen daily (fi6-20 turbines per day\on-land turbine in the view shed < 0 and fi> 20 turbines per day\on-iand turbine in the view shed <0. Furthermore, the negative effects seem to be increasing with the number of turbines seen daily, fi6-20 turbines per day \ on-land turbine in the view shed< fi> 20 turbines per day \ on-land turbine in the view shed. If the respondent do not have a wind turbine in the view shed, those who saw between 0-5 wind turbines per day were equally positive/negative as the respondents who saw more than 20 turbines, fi6-20 turbines per day\no on-land turbine the view shedNS and fi>20 turbines per day\on-land turbine in the view shedNS).
Focus of the paper_
Prior experience variables
Effect of the variables
Johansson & Laike °pp°Se , . , i->nnTi additional wind turbines
Attitude towards more on-land turbines
Distance from .
residence to wind farm
Living at different distances from existing pUistancsNS
View to on-land turbines from permanent residence or summerhouse View to on-land turbines from permanent residence or summerhouse
ßview on-Iand and ooffshore
Ladenburg & Dahlgaard (2011)
Attitude towards existing on-land turbines
View to offshore turbines from ßView offsh°reNS
permanent residence or summerhouse
'See more than 5 turbines/day
Number of on-land turbines seen on a daily basis
View to on-land turbines from fiview On-landdN
permanent residence or summerhouse
Ladenburg et al. (2011)
Attitude towards more on-land wind turbines
View to offshore turbines from pView offshorsN
permanent residence or summerhouse
Number of on-land turbines seen on a daily fiSee more than 5 turbines/day\ on-land turbine in view shed <0
Table 2. Attitude and prior experience towards land-based turbines (modified from Ladenburg & Möller (2010)).
Warren et al. (2005) conducted two surveys on attitude towards existing and planned on-land turbines in two local regions in Scotland and Ireland. Focusing on the Irish study, the attitudes towards two specific wind farms in both Cork and Kerry were cross tabulated with the distance (0-5 km, 5-10 km and 10-20 km) from the residence of the individual respondent to the wind farms. The attitude frequencies point towards that the closer the respondents live to the wind farms, the more positive they are. Using the frequencies from the Warren et al. (2005), Ladenburg & Möller (2010) tested and confirmed these findings. With regard to the attitude towards the first established wind farm in the respective area, respondents living between 0-5 km and 5-10 km from the wind farms (one in Kerry and one in Cork) have similar attitudes. However, when comparing the attitudes between respondents living 0-5 and 10-20 km from the two wind farms, respondents living between 10-20 km from the wind farms were found to be significantly more negative.
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