Distance to turbines

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The distance to wind turbines captures several dimensions of prior experience. If wind turbines are more common in the landscape, the distance captures the potential subjectivity to the impacts from the wind turbines. If people live close to a wind turbine, they might be more disturbed by visual intrusion, noise impact etc. compared to a respondent, who lives far from a wind turbine. However, if wind turbines are a relatively scarce commodity, such as the current offshore wind farms in Denmark, the distance captures a measure of the potential experience with a wind turbine, i.e. the further away people live from a wind turbine the lower is the probability that they have actually ever seen a wind turbine. Such effects could explain some of the observed distance effects in the reviewed studies. Findings from the literature thus stress the role of distance, though the results are nonetheless ambiguous. In Warren et al. (2005) acceptance of on-land wind turbines decreases with distance. In Ladenburg & Möller (2010), this is also the case, however only to some extent. They find that respondents living within a 30-minute-drive from the nearest offshore wind farm are more negative. These results thus suggest an effect of living relatively close to wind farms. It is though important to note however that the measures of distance in the two studies are quite different. In Warren et al. (2005), the maximum distance the respondents live from the wind farm is 20 km. Compared to the analysis of distance in Ladenburg & Möller (2011), 20 km must be assumed to be within the 30 minutes of travelling time to the nearest offshore wind farm. Another distinct difference between the two studies is that Warren focuses on specific wind farms and does as such not control for the distances to other wind farms. In Ladenburg & Möller, the distance measure is to the nearest offshore wind farm, thus are not wind farm specific. This might also make it difficult to compare the results from the two studies. This stresses the difficulty to infer systematic relations in the effect of distance on attitude. This discussion should also be seen in the light of the results in Johansson & Laike (2007), who do not find an effect of distance.

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Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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