Grid code requirements

Grid codes established by the different countries provides the minimum operation and security requirements of the wind farms installations connected to the Electric Network in order to guarantee the supply continuity in presence of voltage dips. The Spanish Operation Procedure O.P. 12.3, which constitutes the present Spanish Grid Code, establishes wind farms and all their components must be able to withstand, without disconnection, transient voltage dips at the grid point of common coupling caused by three-phase, two-phase and single-phase faults within the area described by the voltage-time characteristic showed in fig.2a. That characteristic or LVRT (Low Voltage Ride Through) requirements has been recently modified by the draft of the Spanish Operation Procedure O.P. 12.2 by increasing the allowed depth of the voltage drop up to zero during the first 150 ms after the beginning of the disturbance (fig.2b), similar to the LVRT requirements of the German Grid Code from E.ON Netz, represented in fig. 2c.

Fig. 2. Low Voltage Ride Through requirements: (a) Spanish O.P. 12.3, (b) Spanish O.P. 12.2 (draft), (c) E.ON Netz
Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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