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Preface IX

Part 1 Introduction 1

Chapter 1 Local Attitudes towards Wind Power: The Effect of Prior Experience 3

Jacob Ladenburg and Gesche Krause

Part 2 Power Network Requirements 15

Chapter 2 Wind Farms and Grid Codes 17

María Paz Comech, Miguel García-Gracia,

Susana Martín Arroyo and Miguel Ángel Martínez Guillén

Chapter 3 Active and Reactive Power Formulations for Grid Code Requirements Verification 41

Vicente León-Martínez and Joaquín Montañana-Romeu

Part 3 Empirical Approaches to Estimating Hydraulic Conductivity 63

Chapter 4 Frequency Control of Isolated Power System with Wind Farm by Using Flywheel Energy Storage System 65

Rion Takahashi

Chapter 5 Control Scheme of Hybrid Wind-Diesel Power Generation System 77

Cuk Supriyadi A.N, Takuhei Hashiguchi, Tadahiro Goda and Tumiran

Chapter 6 Power Fluctuations in a Wind Farm Compared to a Single Turbine 101

Joaquin Mur-Amada and Jesús Sallán-Arasanz

VI Contents

Part 4 Input into Power System Networks 133

Chapter 7 Distance Protections in the Power System Lines with Connected Wind Farms 135

Adrian Halinka and Michat Szewczyk

Chapter 8 Impact of Intermittent Wind Generation on Power System Small Signal Stability 161

Libao Shi, Zheng Xu, Chen Wang, Liangzhong Yao and Yixin

Part 5 Spin-off Products of Offshore Wind Farms 183

Chapter 9 The Potential for Habitat Creation around Offshore Wind Farms 185

Jennifer C. Wilson

Chapter 10 Perceived Concerns and Advocated Organisational Structures of Ownership Supporting 'Offshore Wind Farm - Mariculture Integration' 203

Gesche Krause, Robert Maurice Griffin and Bela Hieronymus Buck


Humanity is facing several critical global challenges at the beginning of the 21st century. One of which includes the quest for alternative energy resources that mitigate the dependence on fossil fuels. Whereas fossil fuels are available in situ at all times, the utilisation of renewal energies has to cope with large temporal fluctuations ranging from seconds to seasons. The passing shadow of a cloud over solar panels causes the fastest variability of power output followed by the gustiness of the wind, the rise and fall of the tides and the seasonal and annual variations of the availability of biological resources for energy generation. Thus, the kinds of questions being asked of the research community have changed over the last decades, reflecting the increasing awareness of the finite nature and the instability of fossil fuel supply.

Capturing wind energy has been widely employed for centuries - i.e. the traditional windmills of the Netherlands being a significant landscape element for centuries. To date, the emerging market for wind power energy is experiencing remarkable global growth rates which affect not only the problem of how to technically link these into existing power systems, but also effect deeply rural landscapes and local livelihoods. In many instances, initial positive local acceptance altered to the contrary, leading to sometimes strong opposition against the instalment of wind turbines and wind farms in rural landscapes. Hence, solving this problem requires additional input of economists and social-political scientists. The emerging interdisciplinary research increased the understanding and helped to develop adequate solutions to many of the problems revolving around wind power energy. However, the disciplinary integration and interdisciplinary understanding must be much further advanced.

This book is a timely compilation of the different aspects of wind energy power systems. It combines several scientific disciplines to cover the multi-dimensional aspects of this yet young emerging research field. It brings together findings from natural and social science and especially from the extensive field of numerical modelling.

Harvesting wind power requires the erection of towers with rotating wings in the landscape or at sea. Such artificial buildings with moving parts modify drastically the natural views of the panorama. This raises the question of what are the initial necessary societal preconditions and attitudes to erect a wind turbine. Furthermore, new grid codes are needed that addresses the requirements to allow the integration of the variable power generated by renewable energy systems into existing power networks. Several contributions discuss issues revolving around the variable power of a single

X Preface wind turbine, which poses high demands on its control, and means of buffer storage. These technical aspects and problems are enhanced for clusters of turbines in a wind park and the complexity of safe power transmission of large and variable power from wind farms over long distances. The book then moves beyond the classical wind farm aspects and explores potential spin-off products of offshore wind farms. A case in point is the potential of creation of new marine habitats. Various aspects of making a secondary use of the rigid offshore wind turbine basement constructions as anchor device for aquaculture in the open ocean is discussed in the final chapter.

The actual research questions of the societal challenges raised in this book should be not only framed and articulated by scientists but more and more with policy makers and relevant stakeholders, particularly those concerned with adaptation strategies and sustainable development.

However, one of the major struggles remains how to further define, develop and implement integrative research that studies, explains and projects the various interactions within human-environment and renewable energy systems. Although the book does not provide cast-in-stone solutions to the critical challenges, it outlines the science needed to address these challenges in the near future. Thus, a better understanding of manifold dimensions of wind energy systems is the core aim of this book.

Dr. Gesche Krause

Social Science and Coastal Management Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology (ZMT), Bremen,


Part 1 Introduction

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Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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