Model validation

This section describes the model validation process followed for the developed model. Only the three-phase voltage dip for the full load category is shown, the process for the rest of the categories would be the same.

The next figure shows the voltage evolution during the field test and the simulation in phase A. In the simulation, the voltage is introduced by means of a voltage source that reproduces the voltage during the field test. Therefore, there are no significant differences between test and simulation. Voltage in phase B and C are similar to voltage in phase A. In the figure, the blue line represents the voltage obtained during the field test; the red line has been obtained by simulation and the green line the maximum deviation considered in the Spanish PVVC (10%).

Table 10 shows that the model is validated in this category (full load, three phase voltage dip) because the number of the samples with error less than the maximum allowable error for the active and the reactive power are greater than 85%. Fig. 21 shows the comparison of the active power results and Fig. 22 the comparison of the reactive power results. In both figures, the blue line represents the results obtained during the field test; the red line has been obtained by simulation and the green line the maximum deviation considered (10%).

Fig. 20. Voltage evolution during the field test and the simulation in phase A.

3,400

1

______

..—

1

—J

0,000

0,100

O.JO

0.400-

Ü.Ü 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0,5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 Time[s]

SIMULATION Test+0.10 p.u. Test-0.10 p.u.

Ü.Ü 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0,5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 Time[s]

SIMULATION Test+0.10 p.u. Test-0.10 p.u.

Fig. 21. Comparison of the active power during field test and simulation.

-0.1-

W-

7

r

\ {

Q+[p

¥

\f

0

0 0

1 0

2 0

3 0

4 0

5 0

6 0

7 0

8 0

9 1

0

Timefs]

Fig. 22. Comparison of the reactive power during field test and simulation.

¿Is the model validated?

Yes

P samples with error < 0.1 p.u.

97.50

Q samples with error < 0.1 p.u.

100.00

Table 10. Validation results for the example. 7. Wind farm verification

Table 10. Validation results for the example. 7. Wind farm verification

As it has been shown in section 4.1, if the General Verification Process of the PVVC is followed, a simulation study must be performed. The simulation tool used to verify wind installation according to PVVC must permit to model the electrical system components per phase, because balanced and unbalanced perturbances must be analyzed. The simulated model to verify the installation must take into account the different components of the real system, that is: the wind farm, FACTS and reactive compensating systems, the step-up transformer, the connection line and a equivalent network defined in PVVC. Fig. 23 shows the one line diagram of the network to be simulated.

FACTS

WIND FARM

FACTS

1------------

HV

PCC

1 1

EQUIVALENT

FAULT

Fig. 23. One line diagram of the wind installation network.

The PVVC establishes the external network model equivalent. This equivalent network reproduces the typical voltage dip profile in the Spanish electrical system, that is a sudden increase in the moment of the clearance and a slower recovery afterwards. The profile for three phase voltage dips is shown in Fig. 24.

Fig. 24. Voltage profile in the point of connection during the fault and the recovery.
Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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