Results

The stakeholder analysis revealed that there are different types of actors involved in the offshore realm as in contrast to nearshore areas. Different types of conflicts, limitations and potential alliances surface. These root in the essential differences in the origin, context and dynamics of nearshore- versus offshore resource uses.

For instance, the nearshore areas in Germany have been subject to a long history of traditional uses through heterogeneous stakeholder groups of the local to national levels (e.g. local fisheries communities, tourism industry, port developers, military, etc.), in which traditional user patterns emerged over a long time frame. In contrast, the offshore areas have only recently experienced conflict. This can be attributed to the relatively recent technological advancements in shipping and platform technology, both of which have been driven by capital-strong stakeholders that operate internationally. Whereas there is a well-established organisational structure present among the stakeholders in the nearshore areas in terms of social capital and trust, as well as tested modes of conduct and social networks, these are lacking in the offshore area. Indeed for the latter, a high political representation by stakeholders is observed, that possess some degree of "client" mentality towards decision-makers in the offshore realm. These fundamental differences between the stakeholders in nearshore and offshore waters make a streamlined approach to multiple use management very difficult.

However, when addressing the identified offshore stakeholders, most of the interviewees were generally interested in this specific type of multiple-use setting and vitalized the conversation around the guiding questions with their own comments and ideas. Concurrently with judging 'wind farm - mariculture integration' as an idea worthy to consider, interviewees mentioned several framework requirements for initiating and effectively pursuing cross-sectoral offshore operation and organisation. Not only had certain preconditions to be fulfilled, for example the need to clarify the working tasks and siting of aquaculture installations in the forehand, but also overall regulatory conditions, e.g. determination of working rules, allocation of responsibilities, as well as commercial arrangements or actuarial regulations (Figure 1). The issue of sharing responsibilities in the context of everyday organisation and questions of ownership were especially stressed. In the following, we discuss the organisational structures of such multiple-use setting from an organisational perspective in more detail.

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Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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