Wind turbine test according to the Spanish PVVC

The Spanish PVVC distinguish between two different type tests:

• Test for validating the simulation model (General Verification Process)

• Test for direct observance of the OP 12.3 (Particular Verification Process)

For both cases, the wind turbine should be tested for the following operation points:

Registered Active Power

Power Factor

Partial load

10% - 30% Prated

0.9 inductive - 0.95 capacitive

Full load

> 80% Prated

0.9 inductive - 0.95 capacitive

Table 1. Operation points prior to test.

Table 1. Operation points prior to test.

The depth of the voltage dip must be independent of the wind turbine tested. Therefore, a no- load test must be performed before the connection of the wind turbine. Thus the series inductances (4), the transformer taps (7) and the impedances (11) are adjusted with the switch (2) open.

Table 2 shows the residual voltage, the duration of the voltage dips, and the allowed tolerances of the tests for direct observance of the OP 12.3 (Particular Verification Process).

Dip

Residual dip voltage (Ures)

Voltage tolerance (Utol)

Dip duration (ms)

Time tolerance (Ttol) (ms)

Three phase

<(20%+Utol)

+ 3%

> (500-Ttol)

50

Isolated two phase

<(60%+Utol)

+ 10%

> (500-Ttol)

50

Table 2. Voltage dip properties in the no-load test for the Particular Verification Process.

Table 2. Voltage dip properties in the no-load test for the Particular Verification Process.

If the objective of the test is the validation of simulation models (General Verification Process), the minimum voltage registered during the no load test of the faulted phases must be less than 90%.

Before the wind turbine test, it must be checked that the short circuit power in the test point is greater than 5 times the generator rated power. This condition is fulfilled by adjusting (4). Once the voltage dip generator has been adjusted; the test can be performed by closing the switch (2) of the Fig. 14. The four test categories shown in Table 3 must be carried out. Therefore, the power generated by the wind turbine must be measured before the voltage dip, to check the operating point. As the operating point depends on the wind speed, it is possible that the generated power does not match with one of the operating points shown in Table 1. In this case, the laboratory has to wait for the needed weather conditions to perform the test of each operating condition.

Category

Operating point

Dip type

1

Partial load

Three phase

2

Full load

Three phase

3

Partial load

Isolated two phase

4

Full load

Isolated two phase

Table 3. Test categories.

Fig. 15 and Fig. 16 show the measured voltages during a three-phase and a two-phase voltage dip respectively.

Fig. 15. Three-phase voltage dip: Depth 100%; Duration 510 ms.
Fig. 16. Two-phase voltage dip: Depth 50%; Duration 150 ms.

To guarantee the continuity of supply, the wind turbine will be undergone to three consecutive tests. If the wind turbine disconnects during this test sequence, four consecutive tests will be performed. If in this new sequence, the wind turbine disconnects, the test will be considered invalid.

To verify wind systems by applying the Particular Verification Process, the power and energy registered must fulfill the requirements shown in Table 4 and Table 5.

Three phase faults

OP 12.3 requirements

ZONE A

Net consumption Q < 15% Pn (20 ms)

-0.15 p.u.

ZONE B

Net consumption P < 10% Pn (20 ms)

-0.1 p.u.

Net consumption Q < 5% Pn (20 ms)

-0.05 p.u.

Average Ir/Itot

0.9 p.u.

Extended ZONE C

Net consumption Ir < 1.5 In (20 ms)

-1.5 p.u.

Table 4. Power and energy requirements for three phase voltage dips in the Particular Verification Process.

Two phase faults

OP 12.3 requirements

ZONE B

Net consumption Er < 40% Pn * 100 ms

-40 ms.p.u.

Net consumption Q < 40% Pn (20 ms)

-0.4 p.u.

Net consumption Ea < 45% Pn * 100 ms

-45.ms p.u.

Net consumption P < 30% Pn (20 ms)

-0.3 p.u.

Table 5. Power and energy requirements for isolated two phase voltage dips in the Particular Verification Process.

Table 5. Power and energy requirements for isolated two phase voltage dips in the Particular Verification Process.

Where the zones A, B and C are defined in Fig. 17.

Fig. 17. Classification of the voltage dip in the field test.

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