Introduction

This book is designed primarily for use as a text or reference book in connection with farm shop courses in agricultural schools or in the agricultural departments of rural high schools. The problems that this work presents are many and their seriousness is accentuated by the fact that commonly the farm shop instruction is offered by the teacher of agriculture. This arrangement has an advantage in the fact, that it makes possible a more intimate relationship between the shop work and the various phases of the agricultural work, but it presents serious teaching difficulties and makes necessary such assistance for the teacher as is to be found in this book.

This book and Agricultural Woodworking by the same author are in marked contrast with the early efforts that were made to organize courses in farm shop work. For the most part they consisted mainly of a bodily transposition of manual training and drawing courses from city schools to the schools of the rural community. Commonly there was little or no relationship between the drawing and construction work. Usually the drawing consisted of a segment of a drafting course and the wood work centered around "exercises," necktie holders, and Morris chairs. The authors of these attempts lost sight of the fact that the farmer is neither a draftsman nor a cabinet maker. His skill in the use of the hammer, saw, plane, and pencil should be developed in connection with problems of rough carpentry. He must be a "jack of all trades'' in repair and simple construction work.

The error of this procedure has been realized by many who are now endeavoring to select construction problems adapted to farm conditions. As a result there has been a decided improvement in the character of the work done in the farm shop course but the movement has not gone far enough. The content of the high school course in farm crops is determined in a large measure by the crops raised in the immediate vicinity of the school. In a similar manner there should be a recognition of the influence of local farming conditions in the determination of the content of the farm shop course. The woodworking problems that are" presented to the truck farmer are quite different from those that are presented to the dairyman, poultryman, or general farmer. The instruction offered in the farm shop course should reflect this difference to a much greater extent than is usually the case.

Since the farm shop course is quite commonly taught by the teacher of agriculture, it is especially desirable that he should have a large number of carefully prepared shop problems from which selections may be made so that the work wall be adapted to local conditions. In the preparation of this book the author has borne this fact in mind. It is not offered as a course adapted to any community but rather as a book, which with the preceding volume, will form the basis of many courses for schools situated in widely divergent farming conditions. It is expected that the teacher will supplement the problems he selects by repair work brought in by the pupils from their home farms.

The author's extensive farm experience, technical training, several years of experience as a teacher of shop work to farm boys and more recently his efforts in instructing prospective teachers of vocational agriculture in farm shop work have made an excellent background for such an undertaking as is represented by this volume. As a result he has prepared a book that contains practical problems, carefully analyzed and skillfully presented. Wise use of this volume is certain to result in a marked advance in the character of wrork done in farm shop courses in agricultural departments and schools.

GEORGE A. WORKS.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Adjustable Wagon Jack 40-41

Apple Box Press 106-107

Bag Holder 65

Berry Stand for Six Boxes----116-117

Bird Houses 63-64

Carpentry Apron 30-31

Contents of a Course in Farm

Woodwork 8

Dog House 56-57

Double Deck Berry Stand for

Twelve Boxes 116-117

Farm Carpentry Tools 9

Farm Shop Equipment for

Schools 11

Wood Working Tools 11-12

Blacksmiths' Tools 12-13

Pipe Fitting Tools 13

Tinning Tools 13 -

Harness Repair Tools and

Equipment 13-14

Farm Shopwork Bench 16-19

Farm Tool Box 48-49

Folding Bench 34-35

Fruit Can Rack 52

Fruit' Step Ladder 110-112

Handy Ladder 71

Harness Hook 105

Introduction 5

Jointing, Setting and Filing a

Kitchen Table 54-55

List of Builders' Hardware---- 133

Lumber Measurement Table... 134

Lumber Rack 28-29

Milking Stool 58-61

Milk Test Bottle Holder 79

Miter Box 36-37

Nail and Staple Box 32-33

Nails and Screws 135

Orchard Ladder 108-109

Orchard Ladder 113-115

Packing Table for Barrel of

Apples 120-121

Packing Table for Box Apples. 118-119

Page

Plane Table and Leveling Rod. 127

Playground Swing 66-67

Poultry Carrying Crate 78

Poultry Catching Hook 79

Poultry Feed Box 74

Poultry Feed Box 76-77

Poultry Feed Hopper for 25

Birds 75-77

Poultry Feed Hopper for 50

Snds 7i

Poultry Feeding Trough 72-73

Poultry Show Crate 78

Poultry Sticking Knife 79

Rafter Framing 128

Root Study Case 125

Rural School Work Bench 20-24

Saw Filing Clamp 46-47

Saw Horse 44-45

Saws and Saw Fitting 130-131

Seed Corn Rack 38-39

Seed Corn Testing Box 38-39

Self Feeder for Hogs 90-91

Sheep and Hog Shipping Crate 96-97

Sheep Feeding Rack 93

Sled 70

Soil Sieve 125

Stitching Horse 98-104

Stock Rack for Wagon Box... 88-89

Support Racks for Soil Tubes. 124 Table of Bit Sizes for Wood

Screws 136

Take-Down Horse 42-43

Teeter-Totter 68-69

Tool Cabinet for Wood Shop... 25

Top, Wagon Box 86-87

Vise and Bench Stop 22-24

Vise Handle 122-123

Wagon Box 84-85

Wall Sheep Feeding Rack 94

Waste Basket 36-37

Water Trough 126

Wire Tightener 71

Wood Basket 53

Wood Box 50-51

Wood Working Tool Rack 26-27

A COURSE IN FARM WOODWORK

It should fulfill the following conditions:

a. Each project must be useful on the farm when completed.

b. The course must give practice in all of the carpentry tool operations.

Carpentry Tool Operations

1.

Rip sawing

15.

Chiseling

2.

Cross grain sawing

a. With grain

3.

Leveling

b. Cross grain

4.

Plumbing

16.

Nailing

5.

Erecting

17.

Nail setting

6.

Tool sharpening

18.

Nail pulling

a. Saw filing

19.

Screw driving '

b. Grinding

20.

Screw drawing

7.

Measuring

21.

Counter sinking

8.

Squaring a line at right angles

9.

Planing

22.

Tapering

10.

Laying out chamfer

23.

Scraping

11.

Laying out and cutting bevel.

24.

Sanding

12.

Boring

25.

Round surface edging

13.

Doweling

26.

Mortising

14.

Mitering

27.

Wood filing

FARM CARPENTRY TOOLS

The following is a complete list of farm carpentry tools. With these tools at hand it is possible to do the ordinary construction and repair work which require wood working tools on the farm.

As a means to aid in preventing the loss of tools and to conserve time ofttimes wasted in looking for tools which have been mislaid it is advisable to have a definite place for the tools in the farm shop, granary, implement shed or other convenient place and also to have a definite place on the wall for each tool. This place for each tool may be indicated by a silhouette of the tool being painted on the wall where the tool is to hang. The picture of the tool on the wall serves as a reminder that the tool is out.

It is far better to have the tools hang on the wall over the work bench where they may be placed and removed instantly than to have them throw into a tool box where time is consumed and patience taxed digging around for what is desired.

Woodworking tools to work efficiently must be free from rust. This may be accomplished by having handy a dry rag or handful of waste and wiping the tools as they are brought in and then covering them with a coat of oil. The oiling may be accomplished quickly by wiping the saws and other tools with a rag or handful of waste soaked in oil. A thin coat of any oil will prevent rust.

Fig. 1 illustrates the wall of the farm shop over the work bench.

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Pig. 1. Farm Shop Woodwork Tool Rack with Tools Removed

FARM CARPENTRY TOOLS

1—Jack plane—14" with 2" cutter 1—Carpenter's draw knife 1—Marking gauge 1—8" try square 1—Mallet 1—Saw set

inclusive 1—Expansion bit

1—Ratchet Brace

2—Screwdrivers, 1 large, 1 small 1—Countersink

1—Steel rafter framing square 1—Pair pliers 1—10" flat file 1—Auger bit file

. - 1—8" Triangular file 1—6" slim tapered triangular file 1—12" Half-round wood file 1—8" Oblong carborundum oil stone , 1—16-oz. Straight claw hammer 1—24" Carpenter's level 1—Putty knife ' I—Nail set

'V 4—Socket firmer chisels, 1"

1U"

1—2-lb. 2-oz. Bench hatchet • 1—2-ft., four-fold boxwood rule 11—Cross cut saw tool 1—Pinch bar 1—Spoke shave 1—Screwdriver bit 1—Pair 8" winged dividers

FARM SHOP EQUIPMENT FOR SCHOOLS

Wood Working

Necessary Equipment

Amount Item

1 —Set bits Y* inch, 5/16 inch, ft inch, inch, inch, ys inch % inch % inch, 1 inch ,. • •

2 —Screwdriver bits, % inch tip and 5/16 inch tip

12—Chisels, socket, firmer, 2-1,4 inch, 1-% inch, 4-i/2 inch, 1-% inch, 3-%

1 —Set twist drills, Y$y H by 32nds, square shank

1 —Glass cutter, turret head

1 —Grindstone, 2"x24", ball-bearing, mounted with foot pedal

1*—Carpenter's hammers, equal number bell face, adze eye, curved claw;

and plain face, straight claw

1 —Level stand and sights

1 —12 inch half round wood file

4 —Wood screws (adjustable) two 8 inch, two 12 inch

2 —4 ft. steel bar carpenter's clamps

1 —Oilstone, coarse and fine face carborundum

1 —Oilstone, round edge slip

2 —Squares, steel 18 inch x 24 inch, polished, (rafter framing)

1-inch iron bench screw for home made bench vise. (1 for each vise needed.)

1 —10-inch monkey wrench

♦Equipment needed in sets of one for each boy.

Additional Desirable Equipment

1 —Bit brace, 12-inch sweep (ratchet with jaws holding square shank drills)

1 —Chalk line with reel to fit scratch awl

2 —Planes, block, 6 inch adjustable

1 —Spoke shave, two cutters, 1 straight, 1 curved

Blacksmith's Tools

Necessary Equipment

1 —Anvil, 80 or 100 lbs., steel with hardened face

6 —Cold chisels (assorted sizes % inch to % inch)

1 —Set of drills, Vs inch to inch by 16ths, with square shank to fit bit stock

1 —Breast drill with chuck to take square shank fitting bit stock

1 —Forge, portable, with hood and tub

1 —Tongs, 18-inch length, straight lip, ^4-inch opening

1 —Tongs, 18-inch length, fluted jaw, for inch, 5/6-inch iron

1 —Emery or carborundum high-geared grinder with 1 coarse and 1

medium grit wheel

1 —Set, stock, dies and taps inch, 26 threads, Vi inch, 20, 5/16 inch, . 18, 7/16 inch, y2 inch, 14 for threading bolts and nuts

Desirable EQuipment

1 —Drill press, self feed, with chuck to take square shank twist drills...

Pipe Fitting (Desirable)

Necessary Equipment

1 —Stock and dies, Armstrong type, cutting inch, inch, % inch,

1 inch, 114 inch, 1*4 inch, and 2 inch threading pipe

1 —Wrench, 18-inch Stillson pattern, iron handle

1 —Wrench, 12-inch Stillson pattern, iron handle

Tinning

Necessary Equipment 1 —Soldering scraper

Muriatic acid and zinc

Harness Repair

Necessary Equipment

1 —Pricking wheel

12—Sewing awls, assorted

1 —Knife, harness maker's straight

14—lb. Black shoemaker's wax

2 —Paper needles assorted sizes

6 —Balls harness thread No. 10 white

1 —Box 50 assorted split rivets

1 —Round knife, 5 inch... 1 —Rex riveting machine 1 —Common edge tool ... 1 —Finishing wheel No. 40 1 —Single edge creaser.. 1 —Rivet set

Harness Repair Parts

Harness oil

6 —1 inch sham roller buckles

6 —1 inch wire bent heel harness buckles

6 —Repair clips for end of hames

6 —Bottom hame repair loops

4 —Common line rings and studs :

4 —Pairs, hold back plates and rings

1 —Pair over top wood hames 20 inch

4 —Boxes tubular harness rivets (assorted)

2 —Doz. Conway loops assorted

1 —Box screw cockeyes inch

1/2—Doz. Wrot Concord Clips

1 —Doz. repair roller buckles

V2—Doz. team trace splicers

2 —Doz. assorted %, 1 inch leather slide loops

1 —Side harness leather for general work

V2—lb. Soft iron rivets assorted % inch to % inch.

FARM SHOP PROBLEMS

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front -Drawer details
finishing nails

Place metal vise here

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FARM SHOP WORKBENCH

FARM SHOP WORK BENCH

Bill of Material

Lumber for bench:

Pieces

Dimensions

Use

1

I%"xl0"x8' 0"

Top (Maple or other hard

wood)

1

ii"10"x8' 0"

Top (soft wood)

4

I%"x5%"x2' 7"

Legs

2

I%"x5%"xl8%"

Sills

2

*§"x4"xl8%"

End braces

2

*r'x4"x6' 5Y*"

Long braces

1

i§"x4"13%"

Cross brace

2

i§"xl0"x8' 0"

Aprons

2

il"x3"xia%"

Drawer guides

2

*rx*rxl8%"

Drawer guides

1

i§x6"xl8"

Drawer front

2

i§"x6"xl9"

Drawer sides

1

*t"x4*rxl7"

Drawer back

2

i!"x 9&"xl6%"

Drawer bottom

Lumber for vise:

1

I%"x7y2"x24"

Jaw (oak, maple or other

irx2"xl7"

hardwood)

2

Horizontal braces (oak,

maple or other hardwood)

2

H"x2"x2'

Diagonal braces (oak, maple

or other hardwood)

or other hardwood)

Hardware for bench:

7 carriage bolts with washers, for holding sills to legs.

1 carriage bolt %"x6" with washer, for holding sill to leg.

4 carriage bolts ;%"x7" with washers, for holding top to sills. 40 flat head bright wood screws, 1%" No. 8 or 9 for fastening top board, aprons, braces, and drawer guides. 20 6d common nails for fastening long braces to legs.

1 doz. 4d. common nails for assembling drawer guides. % lb. 6d. finishing nails for assembling drawer. Hardware for vise:

1 iron bench screw or 1" with handle. 4 flat head bright wood screws 1 V2/f No. 12 for fastening bench screw to jaw.

8 flat head bright wood screws 2" No. 12 for fastening braces to jaw.

8 flat head bright wood screws No. 8 for fastening braces at joints.

Directions

Dry lumber should be used for all parts of the bench and vise. Soft lumber may be used for all parts excepting the vise and top plank. Oak, maple, hard pine or other hard lumber should be used for these members. All lumber should be surfaced on two sides to the thicknesses called for in the drawing.

1. Cut the legs to length 2' 7", and lay out the mortises at one end of each leg to receive the ends of the sills as shown in the detail drawing 1%" x 5%" removing the stock with the cross cut and rip saws.

A holt at the top of the back leg at vise end would prevent the vise from closing. This is overcome by cutting V2" out of the edge of the leg at the top an£ using the 6" bolt.

2. Lay out the gains on the outside edges of the legs, %" deep, 4" wide and 6" from the bottom ends to receive the cross braces.

3. Cut the sills to length, 18%" and fasten them to the legs with two %" x 6V2" carriage bolts at each joint. Use the square to assure right angles between the legs and sills.

4. Fasten the cross braces to the legs using two 1%" No. 8 or 9 flat head screws at each joint.

5. Cut the long braces to dimensions and fasten them in place, using five 6d common nails at each joint. Make sure that the legs stand at right angle to the long braces.

6. Cut the middle cross brace to length 1314" and fasten to the two long braces with two 1%" No. 8 or 9 flat head screws at each end.

7. Cut an opening in the upper edge of- the front apron 18" long and 6" deep, 24" from the front end of the board for the drawer.

8. Fasten the aprons to the legs, using three 1%" No. 8 or 9 flat head screws at each leg except the vise leg on which the middle screw is omitted because of the bench screw.

9. Lay out the mortises on the front apron for the horizontal braces of the vise so that the top of the mortises are 7" from the top of the bench or 51/4" from the top of the apron, and so that the inside of the mortises fall flush with the sides of the legs. The mortises should be made slightly-larger than the braces to provide a free working of the braces through the mortises.

10. Locate and bore a hole for the bench screw with a bit 1/16" larger than the bench screw thru the apron and legs on a center line of the leg 7*4" from the top of the bench, or 5%" from the top of the apron.

11. Place the bench screw through the hole and fasten the screw washer in place on the inside of the leg with two 1%" No. 12 flat head wood screws.

12. The braces for the vise are assembled at the half lap joint and placed thru the apron from the inside and fastened to the jaw of the vise with two No. 12 flat head wood screws at each brace.

13. Assemble the drawer guides as shown in the detail drawing, using six 4d common nails for each guide, and fasten in position, using two 1%" No. 8 or 9 flat head screws at each end of each piece.

14. The methods of constructing a drawer depends somewhat upon the tools and machines at hand. If a grooving plane, buzz saw or dado saw are at hand, the method suggested in the detail drawings is to be preferred.

It will be noted that grooves are cut in the side pieces near the lower edge and also near the rear end to receive the bottom and end pieces. A groove is also cut in the drawer front at the inside near the bottom to receive the front end of the bottom. The drawer front should be constructed at both ends as shown in the detail drawings. If the above tools are not at hand this may be done with saw, chisel and mallet Simple box construction where only butt joints are used makes a very substantial drawer if securely nailed. Six penny finishing nails may be used.

1.5. For a drawer pull in this place an opening 1" wide by 4" long is preferable to a drawer pull which is fastened to the outside of the drawer, as it is out of the way.

16. Lay the top plank in place, clamp tightly, and draw lines across over the center of the cross sills.

17. On each line just drawn locate two points; one 1from the back edge and one S1/^ from the front edge.

18. Bore holes deep on points just located with yg" bit.

19. Continue holes thru planks and into sills with %" bit.

20. Remove planks and continue holes thru sill.

21. Place planks in position and fasten with %" x 7" carriage bolts, using one washer for each bolt.

22. Plug the holes in the top of the plank.

23. Fasten the top board by using three 1%" No. 8 or 9 flat head screws thru the board into each sill.

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Fig. 2. Another View of the Farm Shop Work Bench and Farm Woodworking Tools

DETAILS OF DOUBLE WORK BENCH

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Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

There are a lot of things that either needs to be repaired, or put together when youre a homeowner. If youre a new homeowner, and have just gotten out of apartment style living, you might want to take this list with you to the hardware store. From remolding jobs to putting together furniture you can use these 5 power tools to get your stuff together. Dont forget too that youll need a few extra tools for other jobs around the house.

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