Reviews

The Lost Ways Review

The Lost Ways Review

Articles

Effects on the Environment

World Population Density Race

The most direct desired effect of perennial polyculture farming is to address many of the environmental problems that are evident in today's annual monoculture approach. These include soil erosion and degradation, water depletion, and water contamination from fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides. In thinking about replacing current annual, monoculture farming with perennial polyculture farming, it is important to understand what areas of the world are currently under cultivation. Figure 2...

A Dairy waste management systems

Portable Pasture Shade

Dairy operations vary, and each operation presents its own unique problems (fig. 9-3). Many older dairy operations were not designed with sufficient consideration given to waste management. As a result, the design of a waste management system may require major modifications or alterations of existing facilities. The dairy industry generally is concerned with the overall appearance of the dairy farms. Dairy operations require high standards of sanitation and must prevent problems associated with...

Plan F A Treadle Lathe

Treadle Lathe Plans

This is a good working lathe that makes up in hardware availability what it might lack in historical accuracy. You can build this lathe with common lumber and hardware store materials, but it does require some heating and hammering to bend the crankshaft and forge the drive center. If you are not set up to do this yourself, it's a fine opportunity to support your local blacksmith. The lathe frame is just three right triangles connected by four horizontal 2-by-4 rails. Two rails form the bottom,...

The Role Of Government

The consensus on the appropriate role of government in the agricultural economy has shifted over time toward less direct management of economic activities and fewer controls on prices and quantities of factors and outputs. Although the concept of 'market failure' in the private sector has long been recognized in economics, the awareness of 'government failure' is now much greater than before. Much of government failure can be attributed to inappropriate institutional incentives and weak fiscal...

Biological Removal of Phosphorus

Phosphorus is a constituent of wastewater, averaging around 10 mg liter in most cases. The principal form in food and agricultural wastewater is organically bound phosphorus. Organically bound phosphorus originates from body and food waste and, upon biological decomposition of these solids, is converted to orthophosphates. Biological phosphate removal is a relatively new technology dating back to the late 1950s it wasn't until the 1970s that there were full-scale processes developed for...

Weed management objectives

From the standpoint of crop protection, weed management has three principal objectives (1) Weed density should be reduced to tolerable levels. Experimental studies with a range of species indicate that the relationship between crop yield loss and weed density can be described by a rectangular hyperbola (Cousens, 1985 Weaver, Smits & Tan, 1987 Norris, 1992 Blackshaw, 1993 Knezevic, Weise & Swanton, 1994 Chikoye,Weise & Swanton, 1995).The specific parameters of this relationship change...

Definition of Agricultural Waste

A general definition of 'agricultural waste' is not available in the literature. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), agricultural waste is the byproducts generated by the rearing of animals and the production and harvest of crops or trees. Animal waste, a large component of agricultural waste, includes waste (e.g., feed waste, bedding and litter, and feedlot and paddock runoff) from livestock, dairy, and other animal-related agricultural and farming...

Stationary Calibration

Both bulk and singulating row crop planters can be calibrated stationary by following the procedure used for stationary calibration of fertilizer applicators and grain drills. When the stationary method is used, the seeding rate is calculated by dividing the seeds planted per revolution of the drive wheel by the simulated acres covered per revolution of the drive wheel, when the stationary method is used or This equation can also be written as where R seeding rate (seeds ac) sd number of seeds...

Electromagnetic Radiation And The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Wave Model Emr

EMR is a dynamic form of energy that propagates as wave motion at a velocity of c 3 x 1010 cm sec. The parameters that characterize a wave motion are wavelength (A,), frequency (v) and velocity (c) (Fig. 2). The relationship between the above is Figure 2 Electromagnetic wave. It has two components, Electric field E and Magnetic field M, both perpendicular to the direction of propagation Figure 2 Electromagnetic wave. It has two components, Electric field E and Magnetic field M, both...

Plan D Haslucks Bench

Ion Selective Electrode Silver

Paul Nooncree Hasluck seems to have been the most prolific how-to writer of the last century. You'll find under his name books on making clocks, violins, picture frames, saddles, and motorcycles, to name a few volumes on working with metal, glass, cordage, bamboo, and wood and works devoted to photography and rustic carpentry. Born in 1854, by the beginning of the twentieth century Hasluck was editing several how-to magazines and compiling the reader contributions into the many books that bear...

Basic Concept Of Gps Receiver And Its Components

Basic Concept Are Dgps Survey

The main components of a GPS receiver are shown in Fig. 10. These are - RF section with signal identification and signal processing - Micro-processor for receiver control, data sampling and data processing - User interface, command and display panel Figure 10 Major components of a GPS receiver Figure 10 Major components of a GPS receiver Sensitive antenna of the GPS receiver detects the electromagnetic wave signal transmitted by GPS satellites and converts the wave energy to electric current...

Calibrating Fertilizer Applicators

Granular Fertiliser Applicators

Fertilizers, which are mainstays of modern agriculture, are applied in liquid, gaseous, or granular form. In this section we will discuss the calibration of granular FIGURE 8.1. Broadcast fertilizer spreader. FIGURE 8.1. Broadcast fertilizer spreader. applicators. The application of liquid fertilizers follows the same principles as spraying chemicals and sprayers are discussed in a separate section. Gaseous fertilizers require specialized equipment and are very hazardous to use. The equipment...

The Devil the Travisher and the Forkstaff Plane

The devil and the travisher share the form of the wooden spokeshave. The devil has been around forever ever since we broke open that first stone and cut ourselves on the sharp edge. The chair maker's devil is a scraper in spokeshave form. As with any good scraper, it doesn't scrape as much as it shaves. The vertical iron is ground at 60 degrees and may be lightly turned to hook forward with a few strokes of a hard steel burnisher. In spite of its name, the chair maker's devil is a sweet-cutting...

North American Sources Of Seed Cleaners

Grain Cleaner Manual Shaking Screen

The Model 30 Burrows Seed Cleaner and Grader This is a small-sized seed cleaner and grader, suitable for seed testing or cleaning small lots of seed. It has a small chaff or scalping screen on top and large cleaning and grading screens below. Standard equipment includes any four chaif-grading screens and any four double-grading screens. A suction fan removes chaff, and die screens remove large particles and damaged seeds. Its capacity for wheat and other grains is 20 to 30 bushels per hour. For...

Energy Production from Agricultural Waste

Poletory Diagram Schedule

Although it is clear from above discussion that ethanol production through fermentative methods from crops and other renewable biomass sources has received much attention recently, crop-based feed-stocks are subject to seasonal fluctuations in supply, ultimately limiting ethanol generation (Kasper et al. 2001). The energy cost in harvesting these feedstocks (e.g., corn stubble) as well as their lost value as soil amendments can make ethanol production costly for farmers (Pimental, 1992). Animal...

Dead poultry disposal

Cage Poltry Farming

Because of the large numbers of dead birds associated with large poultry operations, the disposal of dead birds is a resource concern. Poultry facilities must have adequate means for disposal of dead birds in a sanitary manner. To prevent spread of disease, the dead birds are often collected daily by hand. Disposal alternatives include incineration, rendering, burial, dropping into a buried disposal tank, or composting. The dead birds are mixed with litter and straw, composted, and the...

Sources of handpushed row seeders

Hand Pushed Planter

With this unit, the wheel is the planting disc. It is sometimes called a Dial-A-Seed planter. Countryside Catalog Rt. I, Box 259 Waterloo, WI 53594 Sears, Roebuck amp Co. Farm and Ranch Catalog Wolf Tools for Lawn amp Garden, Ltd, Ross-on-Wye The lightweight version of two-wheel one front, one rear push seeders opens soil, spaces and covers seed, packs soil, and marks the next row in one operation. This unit usually comes equipped with six seed plates and an adjustable ground opener and row...

Objectives Of Land Tenure Policies

The broad objectives of land tenure policies are not essentially different to those which guide the formulation of policies for any resource or sector, but historically the discussions of the subject have placed particular emphasis on the two overriding goals of economic efficiency and equity and poverty alleviation. In addition, environmental and institutional sustainability are concerns of increasing importance in developing such policies. In the context of land use, efficiency has short-run,...

Stages in Remote Sensing

Gps Control Segment

Emission of electromagnetic radiation, or EMR (sun self- emission) Transmission of energy from the source to the surface of the earth, as well as absorption and scattering Interaction of EMR with the earth's surface reflection and emission Transmission of energy from the surface to the remote sensor Figure 1 Remote Sensing process Data transmission, processing and analysis Forest Grass Bare Soil Paved Built-up Area Water Road Figure 1 Remote Sensing process Data transmission, processing and...

Origins of modern freshwater prawn culture

Freshwater prawns have been reared in captivity, either through introducing wild-caught juveniles or by trapping them, along with other crustaceans (e.g. Penaeus spp. and Metapenaeus spp.) and fish, in tidal ponds and paddy fields, for example in the Indian sub-continent and Malaysia (Wickins 1976), from time immemorial. However, modern aquaculture of this species has its origins in the early 1960s. Ling & Costello (1979) and Ling (1977) recalled that experiments on the rearing of prawn...

Floating Aquatic Plant Systems

Draw And Level Water Hyacinth

Aquatic plant systems are engineered and constructed systems that use aquatic plants in the treatment of industrial or domestic wastewater. They are designed to achieve a specific wastewater treatment goal. Aquatic plant systems can be divided into two categories Systems with floating aquatic plants such as water hyacinth, duckweed, Systems with submerged aquatic plants such as waterweed, water milfoil, and watercress The use of aquaculture as a means of treating wastewater involves both...

Discussion 63 Determination of potassium in fertilizers

If the fertilizer is a straight potassium fertilizer such as potassium chloride (muriate of potash), sulphate or nitrate, it may be extracted by shaking with water. For any fertilizer, including mixed or compound fertilizers, the AOAC official method (No. 983.02B, Preparation of sample) recommends extraction with boiling 4 ammonium oxalate solution. The ammonium oxalate was introduced to precipitate calcium, which could suppress the potassium reading by up to 2.5 in an erratic fashion (Schwer...

Rounder Plane and Taper Auger

Wooden Boring Beetle

If the spoke pointer is like a pencil sharpener, the rounder plane is like an endless pencil sharpener. The stick gets shaved down to a certain size and then passes through a hole in the tool. You can work as far as you want, making just a tapered tenon on the end of the stick, or unwrapping shavings down the whole length. A rounder plane often gets named after the item it shapes. Ladder makers call it a rung engine, but rake makers call it a stail engine, after the name for a rake handle. Boat...

The Safety of Microbial Enzymes Used in Food Processing

5.3 Safety Evaluation 5.4 Evaluating Protein Safety Microbial enzymes used in food processing are not pure substances. Rather, they are complex mixtures that include the desired enzyme as well as other metabolites generated by the production strain, in addition to intentionally added materials such as preservatives and stabilizers. Accordingly, safety evaluation of food enzyme preparations poses special challenges that are not typically encountered with other food ingredients. To address these...

Fresh Water Prawn Culture Journal

Alias, A.Z. amp Siraj, S.S. 1988 The effect of packing density and habitat material on survival of Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 19 39-43. Alston, D.E. 1989 Macrobrachium culture a Caribbean perspective. World Aquaculture 20 1 19-23. Alston, D.E. 1991 Culture of crustaceans in the Caribbean. World Aquaculture 22 1 64-8. Aquacop 1979 Macrobrachium rosenbergii culture in Polynesia pH control in experimental pond waters by phytoplankton elimination...

The Ocean Pickup in Guyana

In early May 1983 the Ocean Pickup, our thirty-two foot trimaran fishing vessel sailed from Martha's Vineyard in New England to Guyana in South America, a voyage of over three thousand five hundred miles (5,632 km). At the request of the Guyanese government and with support from the Canadian International Development Agency, we were to introduce our sailing technology to Guyanese fishermen. The background leading up to the voyage was given in the first issue of Annals (Vol. 1, 1, 1583) with a...

Sources of tractordrawn drill seeders

Cole 250 Fertilizer Hopper

A versatile planter with interchangeable seed plates for drilling vegetable seeds of all sizes. Special attachments are available for adapting the unit to field crops. Planet junior Division Piper Industries P.O. Box 1188, Freeport Center Clearfield, VT 84106 Planet Jr. 7I3fX Seeder Piper Industries Planet Jr. 7I3fX Seeder Piper Industries The Hassia Model PS is a small plot drill with four, five, seven, or nine hoe-type openers, A fluted wheel meters the seed from either a single or a number...

North American Sources Of Animaldrawn Equipment

Cumberland General Store Crossville

The Bowman Model K comes with a 102-by 18-inch box made of heavy pine floor and 12-gauge steel sides. Apparently the only horse-drawn spreader currently being produced in North America, the Bowman features chain drive, wide paddle beaters that do a good job of breaking up and spreading lumps, and either steel or rubber wheels. Its capacity is approximately 90 bushels. Plows and Cultivators Planet Junior Number 8 One-Horse Cultivator The venerable Planet Jr. comes with four 3-inch-by-8-inch...

Shooting Board Donkeys Ear and Miter Jack

Splined Miter Wood Joint

A miter box holds the saw at an angle to the work. A shooting board holds your work at an angle to the plane. Just as the saw must work into the molding, so must the plane. That makes the miter shooting board most helpful in shaping small miters that turn an inside corner. The faces of the angled block hold the wood at the correct angle and support it as the plane rides by in its track. For broad pieces and external miters, you need a donkey's ear. This version of the shooting board holds the...

Agricultural Engineering References

Updated evapotranspiration and crop water requirement definitions. Crop Water Requirements, eds. Perrier, A., and C. Riou, pp. 885-887. Paris INRA. 2. Jensen, M. E., R. D. Burman, and R. G. Allen (eds.). 1990. Evapotranspiration and Irrigation Water Requirements. ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practices No. 70, New York. 3. Doorenbos, J., and W. O. Pruitt. 1975. Guidelines for Predicting Crop Water Requirements, FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 24, Rome FAO. 4....

Tenon Cutter and Spoke Pointer

If pegs had shoulders, they'd be tenons. Tenon cutters were once an obscure wheelwright's tool, but the popularity of rustic furniture has brought a new generation of designs. For the wheelwright, the tenon cutter, also called a hollow auger, quickly shaped a precise, round tenon on the end of a spoke, ready to fit into a hole bored through the felly, a section of the circumference of the wheel. For the rustic furniture maker, hollow augers quickly terminate nature's shapes with simple...

Mechanism Of Digestion In Macrobrachium Rosenbergii

Abdu, U., Takac, P., Yehezkel, G., Chayoth, R. & Sagi, A. (1998a) Administration of methyl farnesoate through the artemia vector, and its effect on Macrobrachium rosenbergii larvae. Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidgeh 50 73-81. Abdu, U., Takac, P., Laufer, H. & Sagi, A. (1998b) Effect of methyl farnesoate on late larval development and metamorphosis in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) a juvenoid-like effect Biological Bulletin 195 112-19. Adiyodi, K.G....

Disadvantages of direct tabulation of administrative data

When administrative data are used for statistical purposes, the first problem to be faced is that the information acquired is not exactly that which is needed, since questionnaires are designed for specific administrative purposes. Statistical and administrative purposes require different kinds of data to be collected and different acquisition methods (which strongly influence the quality of data). Strict interaction between statisticians and administrative departments is essential, although it...

Conclusion On Mushroom Cultivation

Mushroom cultivation is perhaps the most important microbial technology, after the yeast fermentation, in the economic terms. It promises to supply food with good quality protein produced from worthless lignocellulosic wastes of varied origins. In future, newer mushrooms are likely to be added to diversify the portfolio of the cultivated mushrooms and the production of the presently consumed mushrooms will increase with the genetic improvement of the strains and the advancements in the...

North American Sources Of Power Threshers

Vogel Thresher

Volunteers in Technical Assistance VITA publishes a number of technical bulletins in response to requests for technical help from organizations and individuals in developing countries. VITA plans include a peanut groundnut thresher, soybean thresher, and Godavari rice thresher, as well as a set of guidelines for portable threshers. A complete listing of publications is available from 3706 Rhode Wand Ave. Mt. Rainier, MD 20822 The Seedburo plot thresher has a 14-inch wide peg-tooth cylinder and...

Illustrations of New Trends in Agricultural Extension

In short, a wide range of approaches to extension, characterized by a greater role for non-governmental entities and greater emphasis on farmer participation, has proven to be effective in developing countries. In the case of Thailand, as another example, the private sector has been credited with the successful dissemination of new varieties of cassava. A microcosm of these new trends is found in the case of Bangladesh, as presented by Antholt, citing work by Chowdhury and Gilbert 138...

Sources of tractordrawn broadcast seeders and spreaders

New Idea 109 Spinner Fertilizer Spreader

They call it a turf care model, but this 310-pound unit with a 7.7 cubic foot, 500-pound hopper capacity falls into the small farm category for us. With a 54-inch-wide coverage, this unit is ground driven and requires a minimum of 10 h.p. to pull it. The spreader is calibrated for seed as well as fertilizer distribution. Ezee Flow No. 105 Spreader Avco Corp. Ezee Flow No. 105 Spreader Avco Corp. Exec Flow Number 113 Broadcast Seeder With a 3-busheI 2-busheI extension available , galvanized...

International sources of mowers

Moty Gigant

The Bucher M6O0 walking mower has a 10 hp., gasoline engine and a three-speed and reverse gearbox, it can be supplied with a wimtrowmg attachment, trailer, and extra-wide wheels for stability on slopes. Other models are also available. Bucher-Geyer, Ltd. Engineering Works CH-8166 Niederweningen Zurich, Switzerland The M 6 walking mower has been designed for mowing in all types of terrain. It has a 6 h.p. engine with a two forward, two reverse speed gearbox. It is fitted with a fingerless cutter...

Thermal and electric weeders

Thermal Weeder

Flame weeders briefly expose weeds to a propane or butane flame at 800-1000 C Ascard, 1995a , which disrupts cell membranes and leads to rapid dehydration Ellwanger, Bingham amp Chapell, 1973 Ellwanger et al., 1973 . A bank of burners can flame a wide area to kill weeds before crop planting or crop emergence, or to defoliate plants prior to harvest Tawczynski, 1990 . Shielding such machines to contain the heat increases their efficiency. Irrigation a few days before planting ensures that the...

North American Sources Of Hand Wheel Hoes

Ii is Uahlc in either low- or high-wheel models. '' is a full line of attachments including .n.utcrs and frrtilizci' drills. The high-wheel model has direct connection of handle to wheel. Low-wheel hoes place attachments right at the end of the handle for best control of the implement. The manufacturer can still replace parts for antique equipment. Planet Junior Division Piper Industries P.O. liox 1188, Freepon Center Clearfield, VT H-1 Hm This mode is constructed of 16-gauge tubular steel with...

Tractordrawn Unit Punters

Almaco Cone Seed Extenstions

Many of the units described as hand-operated are also available with hitches for drawing by tractor. Larger, heavier planters, like the Brinly-Hardy Louisville, KY 40200 and the Cole Charlotte, NC 28200 are designed for tractor use only. The Brinly is for tractors with horsepower from 8 to 18, and the Cole for tractors on up to perhaps 15 to 25 horsepower. These seeders attach to three-point hitch arrangements or other hydraulic lift systems. Larger and heavier commercial farm planters of great...

Types Of Shredders Available

Grinder Wichita Kansas

Think over your shredding needs carefully before von begin to shop for a machine. There are many different shredders on the market today, and rather than trying to list them all, we've decided to describe the basic types available and give some examples of each type. Keep in mind that models change from year to year, and be sure to investigate all the features of the models you're considering. Most of the shredders in this group comprise the classics of the industry the Amerind-MacKissic,...

Aeroponic Culture Techniques

It is a soil-less plant culture system in which nutrient solutions are intermittently or continuously misted onto plant roots. This system allows efficient production of AM fungi, free of a physical substrate. The colonized root material can be sheared, resulting in inocula with very high propagule densities. Furthermore, large quantities of spores can be obtained from the culture system. Aeroponic culture has worked well for several species of Glomus. It typically takes 12-15 weeks to obtain...

Cecoco Hand Operated Riceplant Cutter

Rice is harvested in much the same way as other cereal crops. Care must be taken not to shatter the hull and risk losing some of the grain. Combines designed for wheat harvest described later in this chapter , as welt as sickles and knives, may be used for harvesting rice. However, tools designed by CeCoCo in Japan are specifically for rice harvest and are described as follows. CeCoCo Hand-Pushed Rice Planter-Cutter This is an adjustable, hand-pushed rice cutter which promises to make the work...

Root Organ Culture Technique

The ROC system is the most attractive cultivation methodology for research it uses root-inducing transfer-DNA-transformed roots of a host plant to develop the symbiosis on a specific medium in vitro (Becard and Fortin 1988). The pathogenic condition known as hairy root occurs due to the transfer of root inducing Ri-plasmid from the bacterium Agrobacterium rhizogenes (Schenck 1992). These techniques, though challenging have proved useful additions to our knowledge for various aspects of the AM...

Equations and Formulas

Equations and formulas are very similar problem-solving tools. Some texts study them separately, but in this section they will be combined. Equations are a way of showing the relationship between different variables in a problem and are usually derived as needed for each problem. Formulas are equations that are used frequently enough or are some how unique enough that they are remembered and used without a derivation. The solution to some problems requires the derivation of a mathematical...